Apr 11 2024

DuckDuckGo Is Taking Its Privacy Fight to Data Brokers

Category: Information Privacy,Web Search Engine,Web Securitydisc7 @ 8:03 am

For more than a decade, DuckDuckGo has rallied against Google’s extensive online tracking. Now the privacy-focused web search and browser company has another target in its sights: the sprawling, messy web of data brokers that collect and sell your data every single day.

Today, DuckDuckGo is launching a new browser-based tool that automatically scans data broker websites for your name and address and requests that they be removed. Gabriel Weinberg, the company’s founder and CEO, says the personal-information-removal product is the first of its kind where users don’t have to submit any of their details to the tool’s owners. The service will make the requests for information to be removed and then continually check if new records have been added, Weinberg says. “We’ve been doing it to automate it completely end-to-end, so you don’t have to do anything.

The personal-information removal is part of DuckDuckGo’s first subscription service, called Privacy Pro, and is bundled with the firm’s first VPN and an identity-theft-restoration service. Weinberg says the subscription offering, which is initially available only in the US for $9.99 per month or $99.99 per year, is part of an effort to add to the privacy-focused tools it provides within its web browser and search engine. “There’s only so much we can do in that browsing loop, there’s things happening outside of that, and a big one is data brokers, selling information scraped from different places,” Weinberg says.

The data broker industry is a far-reaching, $200-plus billion market, which collects, buys, and sells as much information as it can. A lack of comprehensive privacy laws in the US allows companies to easily trade everything from people’s names and addresses to financial data and specific GPS coordinates gathered from your phone. (The recently proposed American Privacy Rights Act, if passed, would create a new registry of data brokers and give people some European-style privacy rights).

DuckDuckGo’s personal-information-removal tool—for now, at least—is taking the privacy fight to people-search websites, which allow you to look up names, addresses, and some details of family members. However, Weinberg says DuckDuckGo has created it so the company isn’t gathering details about you, and it is built on technology from Removaly, which the company acquired in 2022.

Ahead of its launch, the company demonstrated how the system works and some of the engineering efforts that went into its creation. On the surface, the removal tool is straightforward: You access it through the company’s browser and enter some information about yourself, such as your name, year of birth, and any addresses. It then scans 53 data broker websites for results linked to you and requests those results to be wiped. (All 53 data brokers included have opt-out schemes that allow people to make requests.) A dashboard shows updates about what has been removed and when it will next scan those websites again, in case new records have been added.

Under the hood, things are more complex. Greg Fiorentino, a product director at DuckDuckGo, says when you enter your personal data into the system, it’s all saved in an encrypted database on your computer (the tool doesn’t work on mobile), and the company isn’t sent this information. “It doesn’t go to DuckDuckGo servers at all,” he says.

For each of the data brokers’ websites, Fiorentino says, DuckDuckGo looked at its URL structure: For instance, search results may include the name, location, and other personal information that are queried. When the personal information tool looks for you on these websites, it constructs a URL with the details you have entered.

“Each of the 53 sites we cover has a slightly different structure,” Fiorentino says. “We have a template URL string that we substitute the data in from the user to search. There are lots of different nuances and things that we need to be able to handle to actually match the data correctly.”

During testing, the company says, it found most people have between 15 and 30 records on the data broker sites it checks, although the highest was around 150. Weinberg says he added six addresses to be removed from websites. “I found hits on old stuff, and even in the current address, which I really tried to hide a bit from getting spam at, it’s still out there somehow,” Weinberg says. “It’s really hard to avoid your information getting out there.”

Once the scan for records has been completed, the DuckDuckGo system, using a similar deconstruction of each of the data broker websites, will then automatically make requests for the records to be removed, the team working on the product say. Fiorentino says some opt-outs will happen within hours, whereas others can take weeks to remove the data. The product director says that in the future, the tool may be able to remove data from more websites, and the company is looking at potentially including more sensitive data in the opt-outs, such as financial information.

Various personal-information-removal services exist on the web, and they can vary in what they remove from websites or the services they provide. Not all are trustworthy. Recently, Mozilla, the creator of the Firefox browser, stopped working with identity protection service Onerep after investigative journalist Brian Krebs revealed that the founder of Onerep also founded dozens of people-search websites in recent years.

DuckDuckGo’s subscription service marks the first time the company has started charging for a product—its browser and search engine are free to use, and the firm makes its money from contextual ads. Weinberg says that, because subscriptions are purchased through Apple’s App Store, Google Play, or with payment provider Stripe, details about who subscribes are not transferred to DuckDuckGo’s servers. A random ID is created for each user when they sign up, so people don’t have to create an account or hand DuckDuckGo their payment information. The company says it doesn’t have access to people’s Apple IDs or Google account details.

For its identity-theft-restoration service, DuckDuckGo says it is working with identity protection service Iris, which uses trained staff to help with fraudulent banking activity, document replacement, emergency travel, and more. DuckDuckGo says no information is shared between it and Iris.

Weinberg says that while the company’s main focus is providing free and easy-to-use privacy tools to people, running a VPN and the removal tool requires a different business model. “It just takes a lot of bandwidth,” he says of the VPN.

Broadly, the VPN industry, which allows people to hide their web traffic from internet providers and avoid geographic restrictions on streaming, has historically been full of companies with questionable records when it comes to privacy and people’s data. Free VPNs have long been a privacy nightmare.

DuckDuckGo says its VPN, which it built in-house and which uses the WireGuard protocol, does not store any logs of people’s activities and can be used on up to five devices at once. “We don’t have any record of website visits, DNS requests, IP addresses connected, or session lengths,” the company says in its documentation. The VPN runs through its browser, with 13 location options at launch, but shields all internet traffic passing through your phone or computer.

The company says it is conducting a third-party audit of the VPN to allow its claims to be scrutinized, and it will publish the full audit once it’s complete. “We really wanted to do something in the VPN space for a long time, we just didn’t have the resources and people to do it,” Weinberg says. “We looked at partnering in different places. If we have to completely trust a partner versus building something where we can make it anonymous, we decided we would want to do it ourselves.”

Why you should use Duckduckgo as your search engine NOW!

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    Tags: DuckDuckGo

    Apr 09 2024


    Category: Web Securitydisc7 @ 8:42 am

    Google announced support for a V8 Sandbox in the Chrome web browser to protect users from exploits triggering memory corruption issues.

    Google has announced support for what’s called a V8 Sandbox in the Chrome web browser. The company included the V8 Sandbox in Chrome’s Vulnerability Reward Program (VRP). Chrome 123 is a sort of “beta” release for the sandbox designed to mitigate memory corruption issues in the Javascript engine.

    The V8 Sandbox is designed to prevent memory corruption issues that would impact other areas of memory in the process.

    Almost every Chrome exploits observed in the wild between 2021 and 2023 triggered a memory corruption issue in a Chrome renderer process that was exploited for remote code execution (RCE). The majority of these issues (60%) impacted the V8 Javascript engine.

    “V8 vulnerabilities are rarely “classic” memory corruption bugs (use-after-frees, out-of-bounds accesses, etc.) but instead subtle logic issues which can in turn be exploited to corrupt memory. As such, existing memory safety solutions are, for the most part, not applicable to V8.” reads the announcement. “In particular, neither switching to a memory safe language, such as Rust, nor using current or future hardware memory safety features, such as memory tagging, can help with the security challenges faced by V8 today.”

    The researchers highlighted that a common thread among nearly all V8 vulnerabilities is that the eventual memory corruption occurs within the V8 heap. This is primarily because the compiler and runtime predominantly deal with V8 HeapObject instances.

    To mitigate such vulnerabilities the researchers devised a technique to isolate V8’s (heap) memory to prevent memory corruption from spreading to other parts of the process’ memory.

    “The sandbox limits the impact of typical V8 vulnerabilities by restricting the code executed by V8 to a subset of the process’ virtual address space (“the sandbox”), thereby isolating it from the rest of the process. This works purely in software (with options for hardware support, see the respective design document linked below) by effectively converting raw pointers either into offsets from the base of the sandbox or into indices into out-of-sandbox pointer tables. In principle, these mechanisms are very similar to the userland/kernel separation used by modern operating systems (e.g. the unix file descriptor table).” states Google. “The sandbox assumes that an attacker can arbitrarily and concurrently modify any memory inside the sandbox address space as this primitive can be constructed from typical V8 vulnerabilities. Further, it is assumed that an attacker will be able to read memory outside of the sandbox, for example through hardware side channels. The sandbox then aims to protect the rest of the process from such an attacker. As such, any corruption of memory outside of the sandbox address space is considered a sandbox violation.”

    Software-based sandbox replaces data types that can access out-of-sandbox memory with “sandbox-compatible” alternatives.

    In the software-based sandbox, only the V8 heap is enclosed within the sandbox. As a result, the overall structure is similar to the sandboxing model employed by WebAssembly.

    The researchers state that the majority of the overhead generated by the sandbox primarily arises from the pointer table indirection for external objects. A minor overhead is related to the use of offsets instead of raw pointers, primarily involving a shift+add operation, anyway this is quite inexpensive. The sandbox’s overhead is approximately 1% or less on standard workloads, as determined by measurements using the Speedometer and JetStream benchmark suites. Consequently, the V8 Sandbox can be activated by default on compatible platforms.

    “The V8 Sandbox must be enabled/disabled at build time using the v8_enable_sandbox build flag. It is (for technical reasons) not possible to enable/disable the sandbox at runtime. The V8 Sandbox requires a 64-bit system as it needs to reserve a large amount of virtual address space, currently one terabyte.” concludes the announcement.

    “The V8 Sandbox has already been enabled by default on 64-bit (specifically x64 and arm64) versions of Chrome on Android, ChromeOS, Linux, macOS, and Windows for roughly the last two years.”

    Grokking Web Application Security

    Web App Security

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    Tags: SANDBOX

    Mar 03 2024

    Tor Tools

    Category: Dark Web,Security Tools,Web Securitydisc7 @ 8:37 am

    🧅Tor Tools

    🔹Nipe – Script to redirect all traffic from the machine to the Tor network.

    🔹OnionScan – Tool for investigating the Dark Web by finding operational security issues introduced by Tor hidden service operators.

    🔹Tails – Live operating system aiming to preserve your privacy and anonymity.

    🔹Tor – Free software and onion routed overlay network that helps you defend against traffic analysis.

    🔹dos-over-tor – Proof of concept denial of service over Tor stress test tool.

    🔹kalitorify – Transparent proxy through Tor for Kali Linux OS.

    Tor: From the Dark Web to the Future of Privacy


    Tor: From the Dark Web to the Future of Privacy

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    Tags: Tor Project

    Feb 26 2024

    Web Check: Open-source intelligence for any website

    Category: OSINT,Web Securitydisc7 @ 9:44 pm

    Web Check offers thorough open-source intelligence and enables users to understand a website’s infrastructure and security posture, equipping them with the knowledge to understand, optimize, and secure their online presence.

    Unlike similar services, Web Check is free. There’s no signup, tracking, logging, or ads. Anyone can deploy their instance easily.

    Web Check features

    Web Check provides insight into the inner workings of any specified website, enabling users to identify possible security vulnerabilities, scrutinize the underlying server architecture, inspect security settings, and discover the various technologies employed by the site.

    Currently, the dashboard will show IP info, SSL chain, DNS records, cookies, headers, domain info, search crawl rules, page map, server location, redirect ledger, open ports, traceroute, DNS security extensions, site performance, trackers, associated hostnames, carbon footprint.

    “When you’re looking into any website or server, either as part of an OSINT investigation or just out of curiosity, there’s a couple of checks that you always start with. Think domain registrar records, SSL chain, server info, page list, tech stack, etc. None of these are hard to find individually, usually with a combination of bash commands and online tools. However, fetching, collating, and analyzing all this data is time-consuming. I created Web Check to automate this process. It locates, processes, and visualizes everything you need to provide a good starting point for your investigation. It takes just seconds to generate a full report, with no fluff,” Alicia Sykes, the creator of Web Check, told Help Net Security.

    Future plans

    “I’m always looking for ways to increase and improve the data returned. The web scene is constantly changing, so there are always new and interesting insights you can glean from sites. I’m working on some new checks to include this data. I’m also working on a public API to be used programmatically or integrated into researchers’ existing workflows. Due to it being free to use, I must also improve performance to keep compute costs down continuously,” Sykes concluded.

    Web Check is available for free on GitHub.

    Must read: 15 open-source cybersecurity tools you’ll wish you’d known earlier

    Practical Threat Intelligence and Data-Driven Threat Hunting: A hands-on guide to threat hunting with the ATT&CK™ Framework and open source tools

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    Tags: Web Check

    Jan 04 2024

    Google Chrome Use After Free Flaw Let Attacker Hijack Browser

    Category: Cyber Attack,Information Security,Web Securitydisc7 @ 10:26 am

    The latest stable channel update for Google Chrome, version 120.0.6099.199 for Mac and Linux and 120.0.6099.199/200 for Windows, is now available and will shortly be rolled out to all users.

    Furthermore, the Extended Stable channel has been updated to 120.0.6099.200 for Windows and 120.0.6099.199 for Mac.

    There are six security fixes in this release. Three of these flaws allowed an attacker to take control of a browser through use-after-free conditions.

    Use-after-free is a condition in which the memory allocation is freed, but the program does not clear the pointer to that memory. This is due to incorrect usage of dynamic memory allocation during an operation. 

    CVE-2024-0222: Use After Free In ANGLE

    Use after free in ANGLE in Google Chrome presents a high-severity vulnerability that might have led to a remote attacker compromising the renderer process and using a crafted HTML page to exploit heap corruption.

    Google awarded $15,000 to Toan (suto) Pham of Qrious Secure for reporting this vulnerability.

    CVE-2024-0223: Heap Buffer Overflow In ANGLE

    This high-severity flaw was a heap buffer overflow in ANGLE that could have been exploited by a remote attacker using a crafted HTML page to cause heap corruption. 

    Toan (suto) Pham and Tri Dang of Qrious Secure received a $15,000 reward from Google for discovering this vulnerability.

    CVE-2024-0224: Use After Free In WebAudio

    A high-severity use after free in WebAudio in Google Chrome might potentially allow a remote attacker to exploit heap corruption through a manipulated HTML page.

    Google awarded Huang Xilin of Ant Group Light-Year Security Lab a $10,000 reward for finding this issue.

    CVE-2024-0225: Use After Free In WebGPU

    A remote attacker may have been able to exploit heap corruption through a specifically designed HTML page due to high severity vulnerability in Google’s use after free in WebGPU.

    The details about the reporter of this vulnerability were mentioned as anonymous. 

    The use after free conditions existed in Google Chrome before version 120.0.6099.199. To avoid exploiting these vulnerabilities, Google advises users to update to the most recent version of Google Chrome.

    How To Update Google Chrome

    • Open Chrome.
    • At the top right, click More.
    • Click Help About Google Chrome.
    • Click Update Google Chrome. Important: If you can’t find this button, you’re on the latest version.
    • Click Relaunch.

    Browser Security Platform Checklist

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    Tags: Google Chrome

    Nov 29 2023

    Chrome Zero-Day Vulnerability That Exploited In The Wild

    Category: Information Security,Web Search Engine,Web Securitydisc7 @ 8:13 am

    Google has fixed the sixth Chrome zero-day bug that was exploited in the wild this year. The flaw, identified as CVE-2023-6345, is classified as an integer overflow in Skia, an open-source 2D graphics library written in C++.

    “Google is aware that an exploit for CVE-2023-6345 exists in the wild,” Google said.

    There are several potential risks associated with this high-severity zero-day vulnerability, including the execution of arbitrary code and crashes.

    On November 24, 2023, Benoît Sevens and Clément Lecigne from Google’s Threat Analysis Group reported the issue.

    Google has upgraded the Stable channel version 119.0.6045.199 for Mac and Linux and 119.0.6045.199/.200 for Windows, addressing the year’s sixth actively exploited zero-day vulnerability. This upgrade will be rolled out over the next few days/weeks.

    Additionally, Google has fixed six high-severity security vulnerabilities with this update.

    Details Of The Vulnerabilities Addressed

    Type Confusion in Spellcheck is a high-severity bug that is being tracked as CVE-2023-6348. Mark Brand from Google Project Zero reported the issue.

    Use after free in Mojo is the next high-severity bug, tagged as CVE-2023-6347. 360 Vulnerability Research Institute’s Leecraso and Guang Gong reported the issue, and they were rewarded with a bounty of $31,000.

    Use after free in WebAudio is a high-severity issue identified as CVE-2023-6346. Following Huang Xilin of Ant Group Light-Year Security Lab’s disclosure, a $10,000 prize was given out.

    A High severity bug in libavif, Out-of-bounds memory access, is tagged as CVE-2023-6350. Fudan University reported it, and $7000 was given out.

    Use after free in libavif is a high-severity bug identified as CVE-2023-6351. Fudan University reported it, and $7000 was given out.

    Update Now

    To stop exploitation, Google highly advises users to update their Chrome web browser right away. The following are the easy procedures that you must follow to update the Chrome web browser:-  

    • Go to the Settings option.
    • Then select About Chrome.
    • Wait, as Chrome will automatically fetch and download the latest update.
    • Once the installation process completes, you have to restart Chrome.
    • That’s it. Now you are done.

    Attacking and Exploiting Modern Web Applications: Discover the mindset, techniques, and tools to perform modern web attacks and exploitation

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    Tags: Chrome zero-day

    Oct 13 2023



    The digital realm, while offering boundless possibilities, is also a fertile ground for myriad cybersecurity threats. One such peril that has recently come to light is the User-After-Free vulnerability in Google Chrome, specifically identified as CVE-2023-5218. This vulnerability not only poses a significant threat to user data and system integrity but also opens a Pandora’s box of potential cyber-attacks and exploitations.


    The User-After-Free vulnerability is a type of cybersecurity flaw that surfaces when a program continues to utilize memory space after it has been freed or deleted. This flaw allows attackers to execute arbitrary code or potentially gain unauthorized access to a system. CVE-2023-5218, identified within Google Chrome, was noted to be potentially exploitable to perform such malicious actions, thereby putting users’ data and privacy at substantial risk.


    CVE-2023-5218 was unveiled to the public through various cybersecurity platforms and researchers who detected unusual activities and potential exploitation trails leading back to this particular flaw. This vulnerability was identified to be present in a specific Chrome component, prompting Google to release a flurry of updates and patches to mitigate the associated risks.


    Exploiting CVE-2023-5218 allows attackers to manipulate the aforementioned ‘freed’ memory space, enabling them to execute arbitrary code within the context of the affected application. In the context of Chrome, this could potentially allow attackers unauthorized access to sensitive user data, such as saved passwords or personal information, or even navigate the browser to malware-laden websites without user consent.


    The exploitation of CVE-2023-5218 could have a multifold impact:

    • Data Theft: Sensitive user data, including login credentials, personal information, and financial details, could be compromised.
    • System Control: Attackers could gain control over the affected system, using it to launch further attacks or for other malicious purposes.
    • Malware Spread: By redirecting browsers to malicious websites, malware could be injected into users’ systems, further expanding the impact of the attack.


    • Vulnerability Class: Use After Free
    • Impact: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability
    • Disclosure Date: 10/11/2023
    • AdvisoryChrome Releases Blog

    The vulnerability is rooted in the improper handling of memory in the Site Isolation component of Google Chrome. The flaw arises from referencing memory after it has been freed, which can lead to program crashes, unexpected value utilization, or arbitrary code execution. The vulnerability is classified under CWE-416 and CWE-119, indicating its potential to improperly restrict operations within the bounds of a memory buffer and its susceptibility to use after free exploits.


    The primary mitigation strategy recommended is upgrading to Google Chrome version 118.0.5993.70, which eliminates this vulnerability. However, considering the potential risks associated with such vulnerabilities, organizations and individual users are advised to:

    • Regularly update and patch software to safeguard against known vulnerabilities.
    • Employ robust cybersecurity practices, including using security software and adhering to safe browsing practices.
    • Educate users on recognizing and avoiding potential phishing attempts or malicious sites that might exploit such vulnerabilities.


    The identification and subsequent mitigation of CVE-2023-5218 underscore the perpetual battle between cybersecurity professionals and cyber adversaries. While this vulnerability has been addressed in the latest Chrome update, it serves as a potent reminder of the criticality of maintaining up-to-date systems and employing prudent cybersecurity practices. As we navigate through the digital era, the complexity and sophistication of cyber threats continue to evolve, making vigilance and preparedness crucial in ensuring secure digital interactions.

    The Google Workspace Bible: [14 in 1] The Ultimate All-in-One Guide from Beginner to Advanced | Including Gmail, Drive, Docs, Sheets, and Every Other App from the Suite

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    Tags: Google Chrome

    Jul 29 2023


    Category: Cyber Attack,Hacking,Web Securitydisc7 @ 11:56 am

    The article discusses a new cyberattack targeting Apache Tomcat servers, a popular open-source web server environment written in Java. Apache Tomcat supports various technologies and is widely used by developers.

    The attack is orchestrated by the Mirai botnet and bitcoin miners, specifically targeting improperly configured Apache Tomcat servers lacking sufficient security measures. The research, conducted by Aqua, involved setting up Tomcat server honeypots to monitor the attacks over a two-year period.

    During the research, more than 800 attacks were recorded, with an overwhelming 96% of them linked to the Mirai botnet. Out of these attempts, 20% (152 attacks) utilized a web shell script named “neww,” originating from 24 different IP addresses. Interestingly, 68% of these attacks were attributed to a single IP address, 104.248.157[.]218. Fortunately, the attacks using the “neww” web shell script were unsuccessful in compromising the targeted servers.

    A brute force attack was carried out by the threat actor against the scanned Tomcat servers in order to acquire access to the web application management using a variety of different credential combinations.

    After successfully gaining entrance, threat actors will install a WAR file containing a web shell called ‘cmd.jsp’ on the Tomcat server that has been hacked. This will allow for remote command execution.

    The “downloading and running” of the “neww” shell script is an integral part of the whole attack chain. The “rm -rf” command is then used to remove the script once it has been executed. The software then retrieves 12 binary files that are customized to the architecture of the system that is being attacked.

    While all of these components work together to expedite the web app deployment on compromised Tomcat servers in an effective manner.

    The last step of the malware is a variation of the Mirai botnet that uses infected systems for the purpose of coordinating distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults.

    Threat actor infiltrates web app manager by using legitimate credentials, uploads disguised web shell in WAR file, remotely executes commands, and starts the attack.The statistics shed light on the profitable expansion of cryptocurrency mining, which is projected to have a 399% increase and 332 million cryptojacking assaults worldwide in H1 2023.

    In order to protect against attacks of this kind, specialists in the field of cybersecurity suggested the following measures:

    Make sure that each of your environments has the appropriate configuration.
    Be careful to do regular scans of your servers to look for any dangers.
    Cloud-native tools that scan for vulnerabilities and misconfigurations should be made available to your development, DevOps, and security teams so that they can better do their jobs.
    It is imperative that you use runtime detection and response technologies.

    Web Security for Developers: Real Threats, Practical Defense

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    Tags: APACHE TOMCAT SERVERS, web security

    Jun 24 2023

    Web Application Security: A 2023 Guide

    Category: App Security,Web SecurityDISC @ 1:29 pm

    Web Application Security: A 2023 Guide | Cyber Press

    Written by: Cyber Writes

    Web App Security

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    Tags: Web Application Security

    Jun 14 2023


    Category: Hacking,Web Securitydisc7 @ 1:50 am

    The ever-changing topography of cyberspace always results in the introduction of new security flaws and vulnerabilities. A major vulnerability, which is now known as CVE-2023-34000 and has a CVSS score of 7.5, has been discovered in the WooCommerce Stripe Gateway Plugin, which has prompted an urgent call to action for both site administrators and security specialists. This plugin, which was built by WooCommerce and is presently being used in over 900,000 active installs, is well-known for its efficient capabilities to take payments directly on online and mobile businesses. Customers are able to finish their purchases without ever leaving the environment of the online shop thanks to an inherent feature of this plugin. This eliminates the need for an externally hosted checkout page.

    Nevertheless, an Unauthenticated Insecure Direct Object Reference (IDOR) vulnerability lies behind the plugin’s surface functionality. This vulnerability, in its unpatched condition, gives an unauthenticated user the potential to obtain extremely sensitive Personally Identifiable Information (PII) that is associated with any WooCommerce order. This data may contain sensitive information such as a user’s complete name, email address, and residence address in its exposed form.

    Following the breadcrumb trail of this security hole leads to the ‘javascript_params’ function that is located inside the plugin. The ‘order_id’ variable is used by the code included inside this method in order to get an order object. This variable is derived from the query parameters, and it then gathers specific information from the order object, such as complete user details and addresses. Within this method, there is a noticeable lack of order ownership checks, which substantially increases the risk and makes it possible to return the ‘order’ as an object. Experts made the discovery that the ‘payment_scripts’ function might be used to activate the ‘javascript_params’ variable. This function then returns a JavaScript object variable to the front-end by way of the ‘wp_localize_script’ function. When a user visits the homepage of the website, the overall functionality causes the order’s personally identifiable information to be disclosed, which is then mirrored back into the page source.

    After further examination, a second occurrence of the vulnerability was found to be placed inside the ‘payment_fields’ method. This vulnerability, like the one found in the ‘javascript_params’ function, stems from the fact that there is no order ownership verification taking place. The result is the same: the front-end has access to both the user’s billing email address and their complete name.

    The Web Application Hacker’s Handbook: Finding and Exploiting Security Flaws

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    Tags: web app security, WOOCOMMERCE WEBSITE

    May 15 2023

    Salt Security Achieves AWS WAF Ready Designation

    Category: App Security,Information Security,Web Securitydisc7 @ 9:30 am

    Today, API security company Salt Security announced it is now an Amazon Web Service (AWS) Web Application Firewall (WAF) Ready Partner. This service helps customers discover Partner solutions validated by AWS Partner Network (APN) Solutions Architects that integrate with AWS WAF to accelerate adoption of an enhanced and holistic security approach. AWS WAF is available to all AWS customers and all AWS Regions and can be deployed directly from the AWS console.

    This partnership differentiates Salt Security as an APN member with a product that works with AWS WAF and is generally available for AWS customers. AWS WAF Ready Partners help customers quickly identify easy-to-deploy solutions that can help detect, mitigate, and analyse some of the most common internet threats and vulnerabilities.

    Today, businesses of all shapes and sizes are focused on ensuring that websites and applications are protected from external threats that can lead to a loss of revenue, loss of customer trust, and loss of brand reputation. Implementing a WAF can be a challenging task that requires deep security experience that can be expensive and hard to find in-house. AWS WAF Ready Partners offer customers a simpler solution to deploying and maintaining their application layer security solution through easy-to-deploy solutions in order to detect, mitigate, and analyze some of the most common internet threats and vulnerabilities.

    Gilad Barzilay, head of business development, Salt Security said: “As an AWS Software Path Partner and member of AWS ISV Accelerate Program, Salt is proud to expand our existing relationship with AWS by becoming an AWS WAF Ready Partner. Many of our customers rely on Salt to secure their APIs on AWS. By achieving these designations, we make it easier and faster for businesses to protect the APIs running on their AWS environments. Our customers benefit from our unique cloud-scale API data lake architecture, which applies AI and ML for API discovery and threat protection.”

    “Deploying the Salt platform took almost no effort,” said Jason Weitzman, senior application security engineer at Xolv Technology Solutions. “It integrated quickly with our existing Cloudflare, AWS, Jira and other systems. It also started identifying errors and delivering insights on how to craft better APIs within minutes.”

    The Salt platform deploys out of band, to avoid any interference with application performance or availability. The Salt platform pairs with AWS WAF as an API traffic collection point and to block detected attackers. To support the seamless integration and deployment of solutions such as the Salt platform, AWS established the AWS Service Ready Program. The program helps customers identify solutions integrated with AWS services and spend less time evaluating new tools, and more time scaling their use of solutions that are integrated with AWS services.

    APIs are a hot topic among cybersecurity professionals and C-suites at the moment due to their increasingly vital business roles. Earlier this year Salt released a new API report that showed a 400% Increase in Attackers, demonstrating the prevalence.

    Security of services hosted in the Cloud with Le WAF: Web Application Firewall

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    Tags: WAF, Web Application Firewall

    May 05 2023


    Category: Web Securitydisc7 @ 9:48 am

    Your company website should be protected from bugs, hackers, and other online threats. If it isn’t, it might crash, your data will be put at risk, and the company might lose a lot of money. 


    • Using anti-malware.
    • Obtaining a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate.
    • Setting tough passwords to crack.
    • Keeping the site updated.
    • Controlling who can leave comments. 

    The first step is obtaining an SSL certificate. Anti-malware helps detect malicious agents and prevent attacks. 

    Make sure you look out for phishing emails and other scams. Finally, it might be a good idea to accept comments manually if you wish to enable this function on your site. Don’t forget to run regular backups.

    Below, each suggestion is explored in detail. 


    Some providers of this type of software offer free plans, but the more effective ones are paid. They have features like malware detection and removal, web scanning, web application firewalls, DDoS protection, vulnerability patching, and PCI compliance. 

    If you choose a reliable hosting platform for your website, it will do all the work around your site’s security for you. Many hosting services provide anti-malware tools and devices as part of their plans.


    There are a few ways to get SSL installed. Your hosting company might have a free certificate with your plan. Platforms like WordPress typically have this option too. A high-quality website builder will have free SSL. 

    Alternatively, you can opt for a basic Let’s Encrypt SSL and install it for free. However, an advanced certificate is imperative as a guarantee of the best security level possible. The prices of these certificates vary. You can purchase them from domain registrars and hosting providers. 

    The free SSL version might suffice for a startup or small company. However, if you’re processing large volumes of personal or financial data or operating a big online store, free SSL will not suffice for your needs.


    It’s tempting to use simple, but easy-to-guess passwords and passphrases. You should never reuse passwords for multiple profiles. Instead, opt for a password manager and use unique ones everywhere. 

    You could combine a few random but memorable phrases or use a randomly generated character sequence. Use long passwords or passphrases, and don’t use personal information in them. 

    You can create a truly uncrackable password using the above and other tips. Of course, you should never share passwords with anyone. It would help if you changed them occasionally too. 


    If you wish to enable comments on your company blog, don’t let visitors post comments directly. This makes you vulnerable to malicious links, on which other visitors to your site might click, thereby installing malware or exposing personal data. Sometimes, comments are just plain annoying.

    One option is setting up the website so that comments need to be manually approved before they appear. You can use an anti-spam plugin or software or obligate people to register to leave comments. 

    After a few weeks have passed, you could turn off comments on posts. 


    Most website builders handle security issues and software updates, so this shouldn’t concern you if you’re using a reputable one. 

    WordPress and other free platforms tend to leave updates to the user. It depends on what type of hosting you choose. Managed hosting is more expensive, but the hosting provider will run updates when necessary. Unmanaged hosting is more affordable, but you’ll be responsible for the updates for your core software as well as for any installed plugins. 

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    Apr 28 2023


    Category: Hacking,Web SecurityDISC @ 1:49 pm

    The software known as cPanel is used extensively online as a control panel for web hosting. At the time this blog article was being written, there were precisely 1.4 million exposed cPanel installations on the public internet.

    The researchers found a vulnerability known as reflected cross-site scripting, which could be exploited without the need for any authentication. Additionally, the XSS vulnerability could be exploited even if the cPanel management ports (2080, 2082, 2083, and 2086) were not open to the outside world. This was the case regardless of whether or not they were exposed. This means that if your website is hosted by cPanel and runs on ports 80 and 443, it was also susceptible to the cross-site scripting vulnerability.

    An invalid webcall ID that may include XSS content is at the heart of CVE-2023-29489, the vulnerability that it causes. When this content is displayed on the error page for cpsrvd, it is not appropriately escaped, thus enabling the XSS attack.

    The repercussions of being susceptible to these dangers are quite concerning. Using cPanel with its default configuration allows malicious actors to run arbitrary JavaScript pre-authentication on almost any port on a web server. This is as a result of the proxy rules that enable access to the /cpanelwebcall/ directory even on ports 80 and 443, which were previously inaccessible.

    The effect of this vulnerability is that they are able to run arbitrary JavaScript, including scripts that need pre-authentication, on practically every port of a webserver that is using cPanel with its default configuration.

    The proxy restrictions  are to blame for this situation. Even though it is being proxied to the cPanel administration ports by Apache on ports 80 and 443, they were still able to access the /cpanelwebcall/ directory.

    Because of this, an adversary may launch attacks not only against the administrative ports of cPanel but also against the apps that are operating on ports 80 and 443.

    An adversary may employ this cross-site scripting attack to take over the cPanel session of a legitimate user if the cPanel administration ports were exposed to the assault in the first place.

    After successfully authenticating as a user of cPanel, it is often quite simple to upload a web shell in order to get command execution privileges for oneself.

    Proof of Concept

    For the purpose of demonstrating the vulnerability, the researchers supplied the following proof of concept URLs:

    • http://example.com/cpanelwebcall/<img%20src=x%20onerror=”prompt(1)”>aaaaaaaaaaaa
    • http://example.com:2082/cpanelwebcall/<img%20src=x%20onerror=”prompt(1)”>aaaaaaaaaaaa
    • http://example.com:2086/cpanelwebcall/<img%20src=x%20onerror=”prompt(1)”>aaaaaaaaaaaa
    • http://example.com:2082/cpanelwebcall/<img%20src=x%20onerror=”prompt(1)”>aaaaaaaaaaaa

    Please don’t be concerned if you believe that this vulnerability may be affecting your website. Because the majority of cPanel installations on the internet have the auto-update capability activated, it’s possible that you are no longer at risk of being exploited even if you don’t apply a patch. Upgrading to any of the following versions of cPanel or above will eliminate the risk associated with this vulnerability:


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    Tags: Hacking Websites

    Apr 20 2023


    Category: Security vulnerabilities,Web SecurityDISC @ 7:56 am


    The previous week, Google put out an emergency security fix for its browser, and today, the company rolled out another emergency security update to address a vulnerability that is being exploited in the wild.
    The update is now available for desktop versions of Google Chrome as well as the Android version of Chrome. Users are encouraged to install updates as soon as they are made available in order to safeguard their devices against prospective attacks that exploit these vulnerabilities.

    Google has listed five of the eight security problems that were addressed in the most recent version to Google Chrome. Google says that these issues have been handled. The official Chrome Releases blog has provided documentation of these recent improvements. On the other hand, Google does not make publicly known the security flaws that were found during the company’s own internal investigations.

    Out-of-bounds memory access in the Service Worker API is a high-risk vulnerability (CVE-2023-2133).

    Out-of-bounds memory access in the Service Worker API is a high-risk vulnerability (CVE-2023-2134).

    Use after free in DevTools is a high-risk vulnerability (CVE-2023-2135).

    Integer overflow in Skia, a high-risk vulnerability( CVE-2023-2136).

    Heap buffer overflow in sqlite, rated as medium severity (CVE-2023-2137).

    According to Google’s findings, the security flaw CVE-2023-2136 is being actively exploited in the wild.

    A 2D graphics library called Skia, which is frequently used in web browsers, operating systems, and other software applications, has a flaw known as CVE-2023-2136, which is an integer overflow vulnerability. An integer overflow happens when an arithmetic operation results in a number that is more than the maximum limit of the integer type. This causes the value to wrap around and become either much smaller or much bigger than what was meant for it to be. An integer overflow may be avoided by ensuring that the maximum limit of the integer type is not exceeded.

    This indicates that threat actors have already started exploiting this vulnerability in order to target systems and breach them. The results of a successful exploit may be somewhat variable, but they almost always involve at least one of the following: unauthorized access to sensitive information; data corruption; or even a total system takeover.

    The Chrome Stable channel has been updated to version 112.0.5615.137 for Windows and Mac, and it has been updated to version 112.0.5615.135 for Android; these updates will roll out over the next few days or weeks.

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    Tags: Google Chrome

    Apr 10 2023

    What is Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF)?

    Category: Web SecurityDISC @ 8:38 am

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    Tags: SSRF, SSRF cheatsheet

    Apr 03 2023

    Tor Project Creates New Privacy-Focused Browser using VPN Layer

    Category: Information Privacy,Web SecurityDISC @ 3:18 pm

    The Tor browser guarantees that your communication remains operational through a decentralized network of transfers maintained by volunteers located worldwide.

    It safeguards your internet connection from prying eyes by preventing any individual from monitoring the websites you visit, shields your physical location from being disclosed to the websites you browse, and enables access to blocked websites.

    Numerous reasons exist for why individuals may seek to share files anonymously, with the most prominent being the case of whistleblowers or political activists striving to avoid persecution.

    When a user initiates Tor, it initially passes through the first node in the circuit chosen from a pool of 2500 out of 7000 computers referred to as the “Entry Guard.” These nodes are known for their high uptime and availability.

    New Mullvad Browser

    A new browser was launched today, featuring an alternative infrastructure that includes a layer of VPN support in place of the Tor network.

    With the new Mullvad Browser, anyone can fully utilize the privacy features developed by the Tor Project.

    “Mullvad Browser, a free, privacy-preserving web browser to challenge the all-too-prevalent business model of exploiting people’s data for profit,” Torproject said.


    This could be another privacy-focused browser that does not require extensions or plugins to bolster its privacy features.

    “Our goal was to give users the privacy protections of Tor Browser without Tor. For instance, the Mullvad Browser applies a “hide-in-the-crowd” approach to online privacy by creating a similar fingerprint for all of its users.”

    The Mullvad Browser has a default private mode that obstructs third-party trackers and cookies while providing convenient cookie deletion options.

    Mullvad aims to handle all of that for you, allowing you to open the browser with the assurance that you are not easily traceable.

    “Our mission at the Tor Project is to advance human rights by building technology that protects people’s privacy, provides anonymity and helps them bypass censorship.”

    “We want to free the internet from mass surveillance and a VPN alone is not enough to achieve privacy. From our perspective there has been a gap in the market for those who want to run a privacy-focused browser as good as the Tor Project’s but with a VPN instead of the Tor Network,” says Jan Jonsson, CEO at Mullvad VPN.

    The Tor Project has released a statement affirming that the Tor Browser will continue to evolve and enhance its capabilities.

    Dark Web Onion Sites For Anonymous Online Activities: Browse The Dark Web Safely And Anonymously

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    Tags: dark web, Privacy-Focused Browser, Tor Project

    Mar 23 2023


    Category: Web SecurityDISC @ 2:10 pm

    One of the most popular and widely used web servers for Java is Apache Tomcat. It is small, simple to install, and highly pleasant for constructing Java web applications. It can also be used to create applications that are a bit more sophisticated than the conventional JSP application online since it can include JSF implementations like MyFaces, Primefaces, RichFaces, and others (standard library, defined in J2EE for the development of dynamic web applications using Java).

    All of this is very beneficial, and in fact, many web application developers use it on their computers in order to be able to develop quickly and to be able to focus on what really interests them: ensuring that the logic of their Java pages and classes works as it should. All of this is very beneficial. It really is that straightforward… a software developer typically does not worry about the safety of the Tomcat server that he has installed on the computer that his employer has provided for him. In fact, the concept of security is so foreign to him that it does not even enter his mind very often. “pure Java” HTTP web server environments are made available by the Apache Tomcat server, which incorporates the technologies of Jakarta Servlet, Jakarta Expression Language, and WebSocket. These technologies allow Java code to be executed in these environments. Because of this, it is a frequently chosen option among developers who want to use Java to build online apps.

    Up to and including versions 8.5.85/9.0.71/10.1.5/11.0.0-M2 of Apache Tomcat have been determined to have a vulnerability that has been rated as problematic (Application Server Software). An unidentified feature of the component known as RemoteIpFilter Handler is broken as a result of this bug. The manipulation using an unknown input results in a vulnerability involving the unsecured transmission of credentials. The user name and password are not adequately protected when they are being sent from the client to the server via the login pages, which are not using suitable security measures.

    Session cookies generated by Apache Tomcat versions 11.0.0-M1 to 11.0.0.-M2, 10.1.0-M1 to 10.1.5, 9.0.0-M1 to 9.0.71 and 8.5.0 to 8.5.85 did not include the secure attribute when used in conjunction with requests received from a reverse proxy over HTTP and which had the X-Forwarded-Proto header set to https. Because of this, the user agent could send the session cookie through an unsecured connection. Hence, this might be dangerous.

    The vulnerability was disclosed on March 22nd, 2023. The advisory is now available for download at lists.apache.org, where it is also shared. Since March 21st, 2023, this vulnerability has been assigned the identifier CVE-2023-28708. There is neither a technical description nor an exploit that is readily accessible to the public. The attack method has been given the designation of T1557 by the MITRE ATT&CK project.

    This vulnerability may be remedied by upgrading to version 8.5.86, 9.0.72, 10.1.6, or 11.0.0-M3 respectively.


    Mar 14 2023


    Category: Security vulnerabilities,Web SecurityDISC @ 8:22 am

    Apache HTTP Server is one of the web servers that is used the most often throughout the globe. It is responsible for providing power to millions of websites and apps. Recent vulnerabilities found in the server, on the other hand, have the ability to disclose sensitive information and make it easier for attackers to carry out further attacks. The Apache HTTP Server has recently been found to contain two significant vulnerabilities, both of which are detailed below. It is imperative that you rapidly upgrade Apache HTTP Server to the most recent version in order to protect your system against the vulnerabilities described.

    Apache HTTP Server request splitting vulnerability, CVE-2023-25690. This vulnerability is brought about by an issue that occurs in mod proxy whenever it is activated with a RewriteRule or ProxyPassMatch of some kind. This vulnerability might be used by a remote attacker to overcome access constraints in the proxy server, route undesired URLs to existing origin servers, and poison cache. Attacks using HTTP Request Smuggling are possible on Apache HTTP Server versions 2.4.0 through 2.4.55, if the server is configured with certain mod proxy settings. It occurs when mod proxy is enabled along with some form of RewriteRule or ProxyPassMatch. In these configurations, a non-specific pattern matches some portion of the user-supplied request-target (URL) data, and the matched data is then re-inserted into the proxied request-target utilizing variable substitution. This causes CVE-2023-25690 to be triggered. This might result in requests being split or smuggled, access rules being bypassed, and unwanted URLs being proxied to existing origin servers, all of which could lead to cache poisoning.

    Versions of the Apache HTTP Server ranging from 2.4.30 to 2.4.55 are impacted by the problem. This attack is carried out by introducing unusual characters into the header of the origin response, which has the potential to either truncate or divide the response that is sent to the client. An attacker might take use of this vulnerability to inject their own headers into the request, causing the server to produce a split response.

    Secure By Design

    Tags: Apache HTTP Server

    Mar 07 2023

    3 simple steps to evaluate a web vulnerability scanner

    Category: Web SecurityDISC @ 3:38 pm

    There are many web vulnerability scanners available on the market and their performance varies widely. Here we show you how you can quickly and objectively evaluate web vulnerability scanners, to help you find the best product for detecting security issues in your web applications.

    Evaluating a web vulnerability scanner can be a complex task, but here are some key factors to consider:

    1. Accuracy: The most important factor to consider is the accuracy of the scanner. A good scanner should be able to detect all types of vulnerabilities accurately, without generating false positives or negatives.
    2. Coverage: The scanner should be able to scan all areas of the web application, including dynamic and static content, as well as all types of input fields, including cookies and hidden fields.
    3. Speed: The scanner should be fast and efficient, with the ability to scan large web applications quickly.
    4. Ease of use: The scanner should be easy to use, with a user-friendly interface and clear reporting of vulnerabilities.
    5. Reporting: The scanner should generate detailed reports of vulnerabilities, with clear descriptions of each vulnerability, its severity, and recommendations for remediation.
    6. Integration: The scanner should be able to integrate with other tools, such as bug tracking systems and penetration testing tools.
    7. Support: The vendor should provide good technical support and regularly update the scanner with new vulnerability signatures and features.

    It’s also important to test the scanner against known vulnerabilities to see how it performs in real-world scenarios. Additionally, comparing multiple scanners against the same web application can help identify strengths and weaknesses of each scanner.

    Burp Vulnerability Scanner | Bugcrowd

    It’s easy – follow these 3 simple steps:

    1. Choose a web app that will make testing easy

    2. Select web vulnerability scanners and scan your apps

    3. Determine how well the scanners performed


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