Apr 24 2024

HACKERS HIJACKED THE ESCAN ANTIVIRUS UPDATE MECHANISM IN MALWARE CAMPAIGN

Category: Antivirus,Hacking,Malwaredisc7 @ 9:04 am

A malware campaign has been exploiting the updating mechanism of the eScan antivirus to distribute backdoors and cryptocurrency miners.

Avast researchers discovered and analyzed a malware campaign that exploited the update mechanism of the eScan antivirus to distribute backdoors and crypto miners.

Threat actors employed two different types of backdoors and targeted large corporate networks

The researchers believe the campaign could be attributed to North Korea-linked AP Kimsuky. The final payload distributed by GuptiMiner was also XMRig.

“GuptiMiner is a highly sophisticated threat that uses an interesting infection chain along with a couple of techniques that include performing DNS requests to the attacker’s DNS servers, performing sideloading, extracting payloads from innocent-looking images, signing its payloads with a custom trusted root anchor certification authority, among others.” reads the analysis published by Avast. “The main objective of GuptiMiner is to distribute backdoors within big corporate networks.”

The threat actors behind this campaign exploited a vulnerability in the update mechanism of the Indian antivirus provider eScan that allowed them to carry out a man-in-the-middle attack to distribute the malware. Avast already reported the issue to eScan and the India CERT. eScan acknowledged the flaw and addressed it on July 31, 2023. The issue in the update mechanism was present for at least five years.

The infection process begins when eScan requests an update from the update server. However, the attackers carry out a MitM attack and replace the legitimate update package with a malicious one. Subsequently, eScan unpacks and installs the package, which results in the sideloading of a DLL by eScan’s clean binaries. This DLL facilitates the continuation of the process, leading to the execution of multiple shellcodes and intermediary PE loaders.

eScan antivirus

The researchers noticed that the downloaded package file is replaced with a malware-laced one on the wire because the process doesn’t use an HTTPS connection. 

Below the infection chain described by Avast:

  1. The eScan updater triggers the update 
  2. The downloaded package file is replaced with a malicious one on the wire because of a missing HTTPS encryption (MitM is performed) 
  3. A malicious package updll62.dlz is downloaded and unpacked by eScan updater 
  4. The contents of the package contain a malicious DLL (usually called version.dll) that is sideloaded by eScan. Because of the sideloading, the DLL runs with the same privileges as the source process – eScan – and it is loaded next time eScan runs, usually after a system restart 
  5. If a mutex is not present in the system (depends on the version, e.g. Mutex_ONLY_ME_V1), the malware searches for services.exe process and injects its next stage into the first one it can find 
  6. Cleanup is performed, removing the update package 

GuptiMiner operates its own DNS servers to provide legitimate destination domain addresses of C2 servers through DNS TXT responses.

GuptiMiner connects directly to malicious DNS servers, bypassing the DNS network entirely. This use of the DNS protocol resembles telnet and is not considered DNS spoofing, which typically occurs within the DNS network. Although the servers requested by GuptiMiner exist, it’s likely an evasion tactic.

In the second-stage the shellcode from the PNG file extracts and executes the Gzip loader. This loader is a simple PE that decompresses another shellcode using Gzip and executes it in a separate thread that kiads the Stage 3 malware Puppeteer.

Puppeteer orchestrates the core functionality of the malware, including the cryptocurrency mining as well as the backdoor deployment.

Surprisingly, the ultimate payload disseminated by GuptiMiner can be also XMRig, which was somewhat unexpected given the level of sophistication of this campaign.

The researchers speculate that using the miner could be a diversionary tactic.

“During our research, we’ve also found an information stealer which holds a rather similar PDB path as was used across the whole GuptiMiner campaign.” concludes the report. “What is truly interesting, however, is that this information stealer might come from Kimsuky operations.”

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Tags: ESCAN ANTIVIRUS


Jan 18 2024

HOW TO EXPLOIT WINDOWS DEFENDER ANTIVIRUS TO INFECT A DEVICE WITH MALWARE

Category: Antivirus,Malwaredisc7 @ 8:10 am

Trend Micro’s recent threat hunting efforts have uncovered active exploitation of CVE-2023-36025, a vulnerability in Microsoft Windows Defender SmartScreen, by a new strain of malware known as Phemedrone Stealer. This malware targets web browsers, cryptocurrency wallets, and messaging apps like Telegram, Steam, and Discord, stealing data and sending it to attackers via Telegram or command-and-control servers. Phemedrone Stealer, an open-source stealer written in C#, is actively maintained on GitHub and Telegram.

CVE-2023-36025 arises from insufficient checks on Internet Shortcut (.url) files, allowing attackers to bypass Windows Defender SmartScreen warnings by using crafted .url files that download and execute malicious scripts . Microsoft patched this vulnerability on November 14, 2023, but its exploitation in the wild led to its inclusion in the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency’s Known Exploited Vulnerabilities list. Various malware campaigns, including those distributing Phemedrone Stealer, have since incorporated this vulnerability.

INITIAL ACCESS VIA CLOUD-HOSTED MALICIOUS URLS

As per the report, this involves leveraging cloud-hosted URLs that are malicious in nature. The article provides insights into how these URLs are used to initiate the attack, highlighting the strategies employed for distributing the malware and penetrating target systems. Attackers host malicious Internet Shortcut files on platforms like Discord or cloud services, often disguised using URL shorteners. Unsuspecting users who open these files trigger the exploitation of CVE-2023-36025.

DEFENSE EVASION TACTICS

The malicious .url file downloads and executes a control panel item (.cpl) file from an attacker-controlled server. This bypasses the usual security prompt from Windows Defender SmartScreen. The malware employs MITRE ATT&CK technique T1218.002, using the Windows Control Panel process binary to execute .cpl files, which are essentially DLL files.

  1. Initial Infection via Malicious .url File (CVE-2023-36025): The attack begins when a user executes a malicious Internet Shortcut (.url) file. This file is designed to bypass Microsoft Windows Defender SmartScreen warnings, typically triggered for files from untrusted sources. The evasion is likely achieved by manipulating the file’s structure or content, making it appear benign.
  2. Execution of a Control Panel Item (.cpl) File: Once executed, the .url file connects to an attacker-controlled server to download a .cpl file. In Windows, .cpl files are used to execute Control Panel items and are essentially Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs). This step involves the MITRE ATT&CK technique T1218.002, which exploits the Windows Control Panel process binary (control.exe) to execute .cpl files.
  3. Use of rundll32.exe for DLL Execution: The .cpl file, when executed through control.exe, then calls rundll32.exe, a legitimate Windows utility used to run functions stored in DLL files. This step is critical as it uses a trusted Windows process to execute the malicious DLL, further evading detection.
  4. PowerShell Utilization for Payload Download and Execution: The malicious DLL acts as a loader to call Windows PowerShell, a task automation framework. PowerShell is then used to download and execute the next stage of the attack from GitHub.
  5. Execution of DATA3.txt PowerShell Loader: The file DATA3.txt, hosted on GitHub, is an obfuscated PowerShell script designed to be difficult to analyze statically (i.e., without executing it). It uses string and digit manipulation to mask its true intent.
  6. Deobfuscation and Execution of the GitHub-Hosted Loader: Through a combination of static and dynamic analysis, the obfuscated PowerShell commands within DATA3.txt can be deobfuscated. This script is responsible for downloading a ZIP file from the same GitHub repository.
  7. Contents of the Downloaded ZIP File:
    • WerFaultSecure.exe: A legitimate Windows Fault Reporting binary.
    • Wer.dll: A malicious binary that is sideloaded (executed in the context of a legitimate process) when WerFaultSecure.exe is run.
    • Secure.pdf: An RC4-encrypted second-stage loader, presumably containing further malicious code.

This attack is sophisticated, using multiple layers of evasion and leveraging legitimate Windows processes and binaries to conceal malicious activities. The use of GitHub as a hosting platform for malicious payloads is also noteworthy, as it can lend an appearance of legitimacy and may bypass some network-based security controls.

PERSISTENCE AND DLL SIDELOADING

The malware achieves persistence by creating scheduled tasks and uses DLL sideloading techniques. The malicious DLL, crucial for the loader’s functionality, decrypts and runs the second stage loader. It uses dynamic API resolving and XOR-based algorithms for string decryption, complicating reverse engineering efforts.

  1. Malicious DLL (wer.dll) Functionality: It decrypts and runs a second-stage loader. To avoid detection and hinder reverse engineering, it employs API hashing, string encryption, and is protected by VMProtect.
  2. DLL Sideloading Technique: The malware deceives the system into loading the malicious wer.dll by placing it in the application directory, a method that exploits the trust Windows has in its own directories.
  3. Dynamic API Resolving: To avoid detection by static analysis tools, the malware uses CRC-32 hashing for storing API names, importing them dynamically during runtime.
  4. XOR-based String Decryption: An algorithm is used to decrypt strings, with each byte’s key generated based on its position. This method is designed to complicate automated decryption efforts.
  5. Persistence Mechanism: The malware creates a scheduled task to regularly execute WerFaultSecure.exe. This ensures that the malware remains active on the infected system.
  6. Second-Stage Loader (secure.pdf): It’s decrypted using an undocumented function from advapi32.dll, with memory allocation and modification handled by functions from Activeds.dll and VirtualProtect.
  7. Execution Redirection through API Callbacks: The malware cleverly redirects execution flow to the second-stage payload using Windows API callback functions, particularly exploiting the CryptCATCDFOpen function.

Overall, this malware demonstrates a deep understanding of Windows internals, using them to its advantage to stay hidden and maintain persistence on the infected system. The combination of techniques used makes it a complex and dangerous threat.

SECOND-STAGE DEFENSE EVASION

The second-stage loader, known as Donut, is an open-source shellcode that executes various file types in memory. It encrypts payloads without compression and uses the Unmanaged CLR Hosting API to load the Common Language Runtime, creating a new Application Domain for running assemblies.Here’s an overview of how Donut is used for defense evasion and payload execution:

  1. Donut Shellcode Loader:
    • Capabilities: Allows execution of VBScript, JScript, EXE files, DLL files, and .NET assemblies directly in memory.
    • Deployment Options: Can be embedded into the loader or staged from an HTTP or DNS server. In this case, it’s embedded directly into the loader.
  2. Payload Compression and Encryption:
    • Compression Techniques: Supports aPLib, LZNT1, Xpress, and Xpress Huffman through RtlCompressBuffer.
    • Encryption: Uses the Chaskey block cipher for payload encryption. In this instance, only encryption is used, without compression.
  3. Execution Process via Unmanaged CLR Hosting API:
    • CLR Loading: Donut configures to use the Unmanaged CLR Hosting API to load the Common Language Runtime (CLR) into the host process.
    • Application Domain Creation: Creates a new Application Domain, allowing assemblies to run in disposable AppDomains.
    • Assembly Loading and Execution: Once the AppDomain is prepared, Donut loads the .NET assembly and invokes the payload’s entry point.

The use of Donut in this attack is particularly notable for its ability to execute various types of code directly in memory. This method greatly reduces the attack’s visibility to traditional security measures, as it leaves minimal traces on the filesystem. Additionally, the use of memory-only execution tactics, coupled with sophisticated encryption, makes the payload difficult to detect and analyze. The ability to create and use disposable AppDomains further enhances evasion by isolating the execution environment, reducing the chances of detection by runtime monitoring tools. This approach demonstrates a high level of sophistication in evading defenses and executing the final payload stealthily.

PHEMEDRONE STEALER PAYLOAD ANALYSIS

Phemedrone Stealer initializes its configuration and decrypts items like Telegram API tokens using the RijndaelManaged symmetric encryption algorithm. It targets a wide range of applications to extract sensitive information, including Chromium-based browsers, crypto wallets, Discord, FileGrabber, FileZilla, Gecko-based browsers, system information, Steam, and Telegram.

COMMAND AND CONTROL FOR DATA EXFILTRATION

After data collection, the malware compresses the information into a ZIP file and validates the Telegram API token before exfiltrating the data. It sends system information and statistics to the attacker via the Telegram API. Despite the patch for CVE-2023-36025, threat actors continue to exploit this vulnerability to evade Windows Defender SmartScreen protection. The Phemedrone Stealer campaign highlights the need for vigilance and updated security measures against such evolving cyber threats.

MITIGATION

Mitigating the risks associated with CVE-2023-36025 and similar vulnerabilities, especially in the context of the Phemedrone Stealer campaign, involves a multi-layered approach. Here are some key strategies:

  1. Apply Security Patches: Ensure that all systems are updated with the latest security patches from Microsoft, particularly the one addressing CVE-2023-36025. Regularly updating software can prevent attackers from exploiting known vulnerabilities.
  2. Enhance Endpoint Protection: Utilize advanced endpoint protection solutions that can detect and block sophisticated malware like Phemedrone Stealer. These solutions should include behavior-based detection to identify malicious activities.
  3. Educate Users: Conduct security awareness training for all users. Educate them about the dangers of clicking on unknown links, opening suspicious email attachments, and the risks of downloading files from untrusted sources.
  4. Implement Network Security Measures: Use firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and intrusion prevention systems to monitor and control network traffic based on an applied set of security rules.
  5. Secure Email Gateways: Deploy email security solutions that can scan and filter out malicious emails, which are often the starting point for malware infections.
  6. Regular Backups: Regularly back up data and ensure that backup copies are stored securely. In case of a malware infection, having up-to-date backups can prevent data loss.
  7. Use Application Whitelisting: Control which applications are allowed to run on your network. This can prevent unauthorized applications, including malware, from executing.
  8. Monitor and Analyze Logs: Regularly review system and application logs for unusual activities that might indicate a breach or an attempt to exploit vulnerabilities.
  9. Restrict User Privileges: Apply the principle of least privilege by limiting user access rights to only those necessary for their job functions. This can reduce the impact of a successful attack.
  10. Incident Response Plan: Have a well-defined incident response plan in place. This should include procedures for responding to a security breach and mitigating its impact.
  11. Use Secure Web Gateways: Deploy web gateways that can detect and block access to malicious websites, thereby preventing the download of harmful content.
  12. Regular Security Audits: Conduct regular security audits and vulnerability assessments to identify and address potential security gaps in the network.

By implementing these measures, organizations can significantly reduce their risk of falling victim to malware campaigns that exploit vulnerabilities like CVE-2023-36025.

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Tags: DEFENDER ANTIVIRUS


Dec 29 2022

GuLoader Malware Uses Advanced Anti-Analysis Techniques to Evade Detection

Category: Antivirus,Malware,Threat detectionDISC @ 11:30 am

An advanced malware downloader named GuLoader has recently been exposed by cybersecurity researchers at CrowdStrike. This advanced downloader has the capability to evade the detection of security software by adopting a variety of techniques.

While analyzing the shellcode of GuLoader, a brand-new anti-analysis technique was discovered by CrowdStrike through which researchers would be able to identify if the malware is operating in an adversarial environment or not. While this is done by examining the whole process memory for any VM-related strings.

Evolution of GuLoader Malware

On infected machines, GuLoader (aka CloudEyE) distributes remote access trojans like AgentTeslaFormBookNanocoreNETWIRERemcos, and the Parallax RAT using the VBS downloader. 

GuLoader has been active since at least 2019 and has undergone several changes in its functionality and delivery methods. Over time, the malware has become more sophisticated, using various methods to evade detection and avoid being removed from infected systems. 

It has also been distributed through other channels, such as exploit kits and hacked websites. While it has evolved over time and has been used in various campaigns to deliver a range of malware, including ransomware, banking Trojans, and other types of malware.

A strong anti-analysis technique was also deployed by GuLoader in order to avoid detection in order to remain undetected. 

GuLoader exhibits a three-stage process, the VBScript script will first inject the shellcode embedded within it into the memory, then the next stage of the process will execute anti-analysis checks that will protect the code from being analyzed.

Furthermore, the shellcode also incorporates the same anti-analysis methods in order to avoid detection by third parties. It is through this shellcode that an attacker is able to download a final payload of their choice and execute it with the same anti-analysis methods as the original shellcode on the host that is compromised.

Detecting breakpoints used for code analysis is done with anti-debugging and anti-disassembling checks in the malware.

There is also a redundant code injection mechanism that can be used to avoid the use of a NTDLL.dll hook that is commonly used by antivirus programs and EDRs.

In order to detect and flag processes on Windows that may be suspicious, anti-malware engines use NTDLL.dll API hooking. 

Anti-Analysis Techniques

Here below we have mentioned the anti-analysis techniques used:-

  • Anti-Debugging
  • Anti-Virtual Machine
  • Process Hollowing

It was pointed out by experts that GuLoader remains a treacherous threat that is constantly evolving as it continues to develop. Furthermore, experts also provided indicators of compromise for the latest version of the downloader, as well as other key information.

GuLoader Malware Advanced Anti-Analysis

Antivirus Bypass Techniques: Learn practical techniques and tactics to combat, bypass, and evade antivirus software

Malware Analysis

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Tags: Antivirus Bypass Techniques, Evade Detection, Malware


Dec 21 2022

VirusTotal INTELLIGENCE CHEAT SHEET

Category: Antivirus,Cheat Sheet,MalwareDISC @ 9:21 am

VirusTotal cheat sheet makes it easy to search for specific results

Opening the Blackbox of VirusTotal, analyzing online phishing scan engines

The Antivirus Hacker’s Handbook

Mastering Malware Analysis

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Tags: VirusTotal, VirusTotal INTELLIGENCE CHEAT SHEET


Dec 13 2022

Multiple Zero-Day Vulnerabilities in Antivirus and Endpoint Let Attackers Install Data Wipers

Category: Antivirus,Information Security,Zero dayDISC @ 9:50 am

Next-Generation Wiper Tool

Aikido is the wiper tool that has been developed by the Or Yair of SafeBreach Labs, and the purpose of this wiper is to defeat the opponent by using their own power against them.

As a consequence, this wiper can be run without being given privileges. In addition, it is also capable of wiping almost every file on a computer, including the system files, in order to make it completely unbootable and unusable.

EDRs are responsible for deleting malicious files in two main ways, depending on the following contexts:-

  • Time of threat identification
  • Time of threat deletion
Window Opportunity (Safebreach)

As soon as a malicious file is detected and the user attempts to delete it, the Aikido wiper takes advantage of a moment of opportunity. 

This wiper makes use of a feature in Windows allowing users to create junction point links (symlinks) regardless of the privileges of the users’ accounts, which is abused by this wiper.

A user who does not have the required permissions to delete system files (.sys) will not be able to delete those files according to Yair. By creating a decoy directory, he was able to trick the security product to delete the file instead of preventing it from being deleted. 

Likewise, he placed a string inside the group that resembled the path intended for deletion, for example, as follows:-

  • C:\temp\Windows\System32\drivers vs C:\Windows\System32\drivers

Qualities of the Aikido Wiper

Here below we have mentioned all the general qualities of the Aikido Wiper:-

  • Fully Undetectable
  • Makes the System Unbootable
  • Wipes Important Data
  • Runs as an Unprivileged User
  • Deletes the Quarantine Directory

Product analysis and response from the vendor 

It was found that six out of 11 security products tested by Or Yair were vulnerable to this exploit. In short, over 50% of the products in this category that is tested are vulnerable.

Here below we have mentioned the vulnerable ones:-

  • Defender
  • Defender for Endpoint
  • SentinelOne EDR
  • TrendMicro Apex One
  • Avast Antivirus
  • AVG Antivirus

Here below we have mentioned the products that are not vulnerable:-

  • Palo Alto XDR
  • Cylance
  • CrowdStrike
  • McAfee
  • BitDefender

Between the months of July and August of this year, all the vulnerabilities have been reported to all the vendors that have been affected. There was no arbitrary file deletion achieved by the researcher in the case of Microsoft Defender and Microsoft Defender for Endpoint products.

In order to cope with the vulnerabilities, three of the vendors have issued the following CVEs:-

This exploit was also addressed by three of the software vendors by releasing updated versions of their software to address it:-

  • Microsoft Malware Protection Engine: 1.1.19700.2
  • TrendMicro Apex One: Hotfix 23573 & Patch_b11136
  • Avast & AVG Antivirus: 22.10

This type of vulnerability should be proactively tested by all EDR and antivirus vendors to ensure that their products are protected from similar attacks in the future.

For organizations using EDR and AV products, the researcher strongly recommends that they consult with their vendors for updates and patches immediately.

Multiple Zero-Day Vulnerabilities

Tags: Data Wipers


Mar 26 2022

FCC adds Kaspersky to Covered List due to unacceptable risks to national security

Category: Antivirus,Information Security,Information WarfareDISC @ 9:53 pm

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) added Kaspersky to its Covered List because it poses unacceptable risks to U.S. national security.

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) added multiple Kaspersky products and services to its Covered List saying that they pose unacceptable risks to U.S. national security.

“The Federal Communications Commission’s Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau today added equipment and services from three entities – AO Kaspersky Lab, China Telecom (Americas) Corp, and China Mobile International USA Inc. – to its list of communications equipment and services that have been deemed a threat to national security, consistent with requirements in the Secure and Trusted Communications Networks Act of 2019.” reads the FCC’s press release.

The Covered List, published by Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau published, included products and services that could pose an unacceptable risk to the national security of the United States or the security and safety of United States persons.

The US commission also added Chinese state-owned mobile service providers China Mobile International USA and China Telecom Americas to the list. Below is the list of Covered Equipment or Services added on March 25, 2022:

  • Information security products, solutions, and services supplied, directly or indirectly, by AO Kaspersky Lab or any of its predecessors, successors, parents, subsidiaries, or affiliates.
  • International telecommunications services provided by China Mobile International USA Inc. subject to section 214 of the Communications Act of 1934.
  • Telecommunications services provided by China Telecom (Americas) Corp. subject to section 214 of the Communications Act of 1934.

FCC banned Kaspersky security solutions and services supplied by Kaspersky or any linked companies.

“The FCC’s decision to add these three entities to our Covered List is welcome news. The FCC plays a critical role in securing our nation’s communications networks, and keeping our Covered List up to date is an important tool we have at our disposal to do just that. In particular, I am pleased that our national security agencies agreed with my assessment that China Mobile and China Telecom appeared to meet the threshold necessary to add these entities to our list. Their addition, as well as Kaspersky Labs, will help secure our networks from threats posed by Chinese and Russian state backed entities seeking to engage in espionage and otherwise harm America’s interests.” said FCC Commissioner Brendan Carr. “I applaud Chairwoman Rosenworcel for working closely with our partners in the Executive Branch on these updates. As we continue our work to secure America’s communications networks, I am confident that we will have more entities to add to our Covered List.”

In Mid March, the German Federal Office for Information Security agency, aka BSI, recommended consumers uninstall Kaspersky anti-virus software. The Agency warns the cybersecurity firm could be implicated in hacking attacks during the ongoing Russian invasion of Ukraine.

According to §7 BSI law, the BSI warns against the use of Kaspersky Antivirus and recommends replacing it asap with defense solutions from other vendors.

Tags: FCC, kaspersky, National security


Jan 19 2022

VirusTotal Hacking: Finding stolen credentials hosted on VirusTotal

Category: AntivirusDISC @ 12:42 pm

The source of the compromised credentials

The credentials are contained in files that common info-stealers and keyloggers use to exfiltrate them from infected machines.

These files can end up hosted on VirusTotal due to hackers using VirusTotal to promote selling victims’ data or due to attackers uploading them by mistake, Tomer Bar, Director of Security Research at SafeBreach, told Help Net Security.

They may also be uploaded by third parties (e.g., a security researcher or the company where the C2 server is hosted) who are unaware they contain sensitive information. Finally, some environments are configured to automatically upload files to VirusTotal to verify whether they are “clean”.

Finding the files with stolen credentials

Just like Google Search can be used to search for vulnerable websites/systems, IoT devices, and sensitive data (the method is known as Google hacking or dorking), VirusTotal’s APIs and tools (VT Graph, Retrohunt, etc.) can be used to find files containing stolen data.

To prove it, the researchers compiled a list of those files’ names, acquired a monthly VirusTotal license that allowed them to do searches, explore VirusTotal’s dataset, and perform malware hunts – and started searching for them.

It didn’t take long to find some. Depending on the malware, these files contain credentials for email and social media accounts, e-commerce sites, online payment services, gaming platforms, online government services, streaming platforms, online banking accounts, and private keys of cryptocurrency wallets.

They’ve also connected some of these files to specific sellers of stolen credentials on a variety of hacking forums and Telegram groups, and have shown that in some cases it may be easy for criminals to discover credentials for accessing malware’s C2 FTP server and use them to “collect” stolen credentials.

“Our goal was to identify the data a criminal could gather with a VirusTotal license,” Bar noted, and said that they have proven this method – dubbed “VirusTotal Hacking” – works at scale.

“A criminal who uses this method can gather an almost unlimited number of credentials and other user-sensitive data with very little effort in a short period of time using an infection-free approach. We called it the perfect cyber crime, not just due to the fact that there is no risk and the effort is very low, but also due to the inability of victims to protect themselves from this type of activity. After victims are hacked by the original hacker, most have little visibility into what sensitive information is uploaded and stored in VirusTotal and other forums.”

The researchers urged Google – the owner of VirusTotal via its subsidiary Chronicle – to periodically search and remove files with sensitive user data and ban API keys that upload those files, and to add an algorithm that disallows uploads of files that contain sensitive cleartext data or encrypted files with the decryption password attached (either as text or included in an image).

They also pointed out that malwares’ unsecured C2 communication protocols should be exploited by defenders – in concert with hosting companies – to sinkhole or terminate C2 servers.

As a final side note, stolen credentials are not the only sensitive information that can occasionally be found on VirusTotal:

VirusTotal stolen credentials

Self-Sovereign Identity: Decentralized digital identity and verifiable credentials

Tags: Self-Sovereign Identity: Decentralized digital identity and verifiable credentials, VirusTotal


Dec 02 2021

VirusTotal Collections allows enhancing the sharing of Indicators of Compromise (IoCs)

Category: Antivirus,MalwareDISC @ 9:42 am

VirusTotal announced VirusTotal Collections, a new service that allows security researchers to share sets of Indicators of Compromise (IoCs).

VirusTotal announced VirusTotal Collections, a new service that allows threat researchers to share Indicators of Compromise (IoCs).

A collection is a live report that includes IoCs associated with a specific threat and it is available for VirusTotal registered users. The reports will also include up-to-date VirusTotal analysis metadata.

“A collection is a live report which contains a title, a group of IoCs (file hashes, URLs, domains and IP addresses) and an optional description. Collections are open to our VirusTotal Community (registered users) and they will be enhanced with VirusTotal analysis metadata providing the latest information we have for the IoCs, along with some aggregated tags.” reads the announcement published by Virus Total.

Registered VirusTotal users will be able to add or remove IoCs to/from the reports.

Security experts often use sharing platforms like Pastebin to share IoCs with the community, now they have a dedicated platform to do it, which is also integrated with the information from Virus Total. Users can create IoC collections in the VirusTotal home page, under the SEARCH tab.

Cyber indicators of compromise: a domain ontology for security information and event management Paperback

Tags: VirusTotal


Jul 31 2021

OSINT Tutorial to Discover Antivirus of the Target

Category: Antivirus,OSINTDISC @ 1:35 pm

This OSINT tutorial demonstrates the “RECON-NG tool” on Kali Linux. It discovers the type of Anti-Virus software (AV) the victim is running on their internal network.

It’s impossible to circumvent every Anti-Virus, yet an experienced attacker knows it is possible to avoid a specific AV software for a sufficient period. If an attacker discovers which Anti-Virus the victim is running, the attacker develops their virus undetectable by that Anti-Virus.

The Recon-NG is a robust tool for performing automatic data collection and network footprinting. One can access a variety of websites to get passive data or aggressively investigate the victim for details. It offers several functionalities that enable the attacker to capture user data for social engineering, network traffic for network analysis, and more.

Consider it a data-gathering version of Metasploit. Anybody aware of Metasploit will feel at ease with this GUI, which looked and feel like Metasploit.

RECON-NG relies on sending repetitive requests to a DNS server to determine whether the DNS server has a cache containing the Anti-Virus supplier’s website. If that runs, it means that the victim at an organization is using that particular Anti-Virus program. As a result, viewing the website requires upgrading the antivirus signatures. When the DNS server does not have a cache of the AV company’s website, one can assume that nobody inside the company has asked for the Anti-Virus company’s website.

Let us get rolling!

Table of Contents

Tags: OSINT Tutorial


May 15 2019

Virus Removal Tool

Category: AntivirusDISC @ 10:30 pm

Virus Removal Tool

Free Virus Removal Tools to Secure Against Virus Infection, Including Conficker, Rootkits and More. Download the Free Sophos Virus Removal Tool Today.

Source: Sophos Virus Removal Tool


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Tags: Free antivirus, Virus Removal Tool


Apr 23 2019

The best antivirus software of 2019

Category: AntivirusDISC @ 12:32 pm

The best antivirus software of 2019

Source: The best antivirus software of 2019


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Apr 05 2019

How to avoid document-based malware attacks

Category: Antivirus,MalwareDISC @ 9:39 am

Some 59% of all malicious files detected in the first quarter of 2019 were documents, according to a Barracuda Networks report. Here’s how to protect yourself against this growing threat.

Source: How to avoid document-based malware attacks






Apr 03 2019

Hospital viruses: Fake cancerous nodes in CT scans, created by malware, trick radiologists

Category: Antivirus,Information SecurityDISC @ 3:50 pm

Researchers in Israel created malware to draw attention to serious security weaknesses in medical imaging equipment and networks.

Source: Hospital viruses: Fake cancerous nodes in CT scans, created by malware, trick radiologists

  • Malware Analysis





  • Feb 14 2019

    Emotet Uses Camouflaged Malicious Macros to Avoid Antivirus Detection

    Category: AntivirusDISC @ 6:37 pm

    A new Emotet Trojan variant has been observed in the wild with the added ability to hide from anti-malware software by embedding malicious macros used to drop the main payload inside XML files disguised as Word documents.

    Source: Emotet Uses Camouflaged Malicious Macros to Avoid Antivirus Detection






    Jan 29 2017

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    Tags: Antivirus software, bitdefender, kaspersky, McAfee, Symantec, webroot