Nov 09 2023

NordVPN safe and private access to the internet

Category: VPNdisc7 @ 9:56 pm

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Tags: NordVPN

Aug 11 2023


Category: Security vulnerabilities,VPNdisc7 @ 9:01 am

The term “virtual private network,” or VPN for short, has become almost synonymous with “online privacy and security.” VPNs function by creating an encrypted tunnel through which your data may transit as it moves over the internet. They are designed to protect your privacy and make it impossible for anyone to monitor or access your activity while you are online. But what happens if the same instrument that was supposed to keep your privacy safe turns out to be a conduit for attacks? Introduce yourself to “TunnelCrack,” a frightening discovery that has sent shockwaves across the world of cybersecurity. Nian Xue from New York University, Yashaswi Malla and Zihang Xia from New York University Abu Dhabi, Christina Popper from New York University, and Mathy Vanhoef from KU Leuven University were the ones that carried out the study.

Two serious vulnerabilities in virtual private networks (VPNs) have been discovered by a research team . These vulnerabilities had been dormant since 1996. It is possible to leak and read user traffic, steal information, or even conduct attacks on user devices by exploiting these vulnerabilities, which are present in practically every VPN product across all platforms. TunnelCrack is a combination of two common security flaws found in virtual private networks (VPNs). Even though a virtual private network (VPN) is designed to safeguard all of the data that a user sends, these attacks are able to circumvent this security. An enemy, for example, may take advantage of the security flaws to steal information from users, read their communications, attack their devices, or even just spill it all. Regardless of the security protocol that is utilized by the VPN, the uncovered flaws may be exploited and used maliciously. In other words, even Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) that claim to utilize “military grade encryption” or that use encryption methods that they themselves invented are vulnerable to attack. When a user joins to an unsecured Wi-Fi network, the initial set of vulnerabilities, which they  refer to as LocalNet attacks, is susceptible to being exploited. The second group of vulnerabilities, which are known as ServerIP attacks, are susceptible to being exploited by shady Internet service providers as well as by unsecured wireless networks. Both of these attacks involve manipulating the routing table of the victim in order to deceive the victim into sending traffic outside the secured VPN tunnel. This enables an adversary to read and intercept the data that is being sent.

The video that may be seen below demonstrates three different ways in which an attacker might take advantage of the disclosed vulnerabilities. In the first step of the attack, the LocalNet vulnerability is exploited to force the target to leak communications. This is used to intercept sensitive information that is being transferred to websites that do not have enough security, such as the victim’s account and password being exposed. They also demonstrate how an adversary may determine which websites a user is accessing, which is something that is not generally achievable when utilizing a virtual private network (VPN). Last but not least, a modification of the LocalNet attack is used in order to prevent a surveillance camera from alerting its user to any unexpected motion.

As the demonstration indicates, the vulnerabilities in the VPN may be exploited to trivially leak traffic and identify the websites that an individual is accessing. In addition, any data that is transferred to websites with inappropriate configurations or that is supplied by applications that are not secure may be intercepted.

Users may protect themselves by keeping the software for their VPNs up to date. Additionally, any data that is transferred cannot be stolen if a website is correctly set using HTTP Strict Transport protection (HSTS) to always utilize HTTPS as an additional layer of protection. These days, around 25 percent of websites are built in this manner. In addition, a few of browsers will now display a warning to the user if HTTPS is not being utilized. Last but not least, while they are not always error-free, most current mobile applications employ HTTPS by default and, as a result, also use this additional security.

In addition to being exploited to attack websites, virtual private networks (VPNs) sometimes defend outdated or less secure protocols, which presents an additional danger. These attacks now make it possible for an adversary to circumvent the security provided by a virtual private network (VPN), which means that attackers may target any older or less secure protocols that are used by the victim, such as RDP, POP, FTP, telnet, and so on.

LocalNet Attacks

The adversary in a LocalNet attack pretends to be a hostile Wi-Fi or Ethernet network, and they deceive the victim into joining to their network by using social engineering techniques. Cloning a well-known Wi-Fi hotspot, such as the one offered by “Starbucks,” is a straightforward method for achieving this goal. As soon as a victim establishes a connection to this malicious network, the attacker allots the victim a public IP address as well as a subnet. An illustration of this may be seen in the graphic below; the objective of the opponent in this case is to prevent traffic from reaching the website
The website, which can be seen in the picture to the right, uses the IP address The adversary will convince the victim that the local network is utilizing the subnet in order to intercept traffic that is headed toward this website. The victim is told, in other words, that IP addresses in the range are immediately accessible inside the local network. A web request will be sent to the IP address if the victim navigates to at this time. The victim will submit the web request outside the secured VPN tunnel because it believes that this IP address is immediately available inside the local network.

An adversary may potentially leak practically all of the victim’s traffic by assigning bigger subnets to the local network they have access to. In addition, although while the LocalNet attack’s primary objective is to send data outside the VPN tunnel, it may also be exploited in such a way as to prevent some traffic from passing through while the VPN is in operation.

ServerIP Attacks

In order to execute a ServerIP attack, the attacker has to have the ability to spoof DNS responses before the VPN is activated, and they also need to be able to monitor traffic going to the VPN server. Acting as a hostile Wi-Fi or Ethernet network is one way to achieve this goal; in a manner similar to the LocalNet attacks, this may also be done. The attacks may also be carried out via an Internet service provider (ISP) that is hostile or by a core Internet router that has been hacked.

The fundamental premise is that the attacker will attempt to impersonate the VPN server by forging its IP address. An attacker may fake the DNS answer to have a different IP address if, for instance, the VPN server is recognized by the hostname but its actual IP address is An illustration of this may be seen in the following image, in which the adversary’s objective is to intercept communication sent towards, which has the IP address

The attacker begins by forging the DNS reply for such that it returns the IP address This IP address is identical to the IP address of To put it another way, if you wish to leak traffic towards a certain IP address, you fake that address. After that, the victim will connect to the VPN server that is located at This traffic is then redirected to the victim’s actual VPN server by the adversary, who does this to ensure that the victim is still able to successfully build a VPN connection. As a consequence of this, the victim is still able to successfully build the VPN tunnel even if they are using the incorrect IP address while connecting to the VPN server. In addition to this, the victim will implement a routing rule that will direct all traffic destined for to be routed outside of the VPN tunnel.

A web request is now made to whenever the victim navigates to on their web browser. This request is routed outside of the secured VPN tunnel because of the routing rule that prevents packets from being re-encrypted when they are submitted to the VPN server. As a direct consequence of this, the web request is exposed.

The built-in VPN clients of Windows, macOS, and iOS were discovered to have security flaws by this study. Android versions 12 and above are not impacted by this issue. A significant portion of Linux-based virtual private networks (VPNs) are also susceptible. In addition, they discovered that the majority of OpenVPN profiles, when used with a VPN client that is susceptible to vulnerabilities, utilize a hostname to identify the VPN server, which may lead to behavior that is susceptible to vulnerabilities.

In order to keep customers safe, they worked together with CERT/CC and a number of other VPN providers to develop and release security upgrades over the course of a coordinated disclosure period of ninety days. Mozilla VPN, Surfshark, Malwarebytes, Windscribe (which can import OpenVPN profiles), and Cloudflare’s WARP are a few examples of VPNs that have been updated with patches. You can protect yourself against the LocalNet attack even if updates for your VPN are not currently available by turning off connection to your local network. You may further reduce the risk of attacks by ensuring that websites utilize HTTPS, a protocol that is supported by the majority of websites today.

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Jan 18 2022

Microsoft releases Windows out-of-band emergency fixes for Win Server, VPN issues

Category: VPNDISC @ 1:33 pm

Microsoft has released emergency out-of-band (OOB) updates for Windows to address multiple issues caused by security updates issued as part of the January 2021 Patch Tuesday.

The Windows Server updates for January were causing a series of issues for administrators, multiple administrators reported anomalous reboots of Windows domain controllers, and Hyper-V that was no longer starting on Windows servers.

Reports also claim that the Windows Resilient File System (ReFS) volumes were no longer accessible after the installation of January 2021 updates.

Some administrators and users reported problems with L2TP VPN connections on Windows 10 after installing the recent Windows 10 and Windows 11 cumulative updates.

“Microsoft is releasing out-of-band (OOB) updates for some versions of Windows today, January 18, 2022,” the company said. “This update fixes issues related to VPN connectivity, Windows Server domain controller restarts, virtual machine startup failures, and ReFS-formatted removable media that fails to mount.”

The OOB updates can be downloaded from the Microsoft Update Catalog, if they are not installed directly from Windows Update as optional updates.

Emergency out-of-band (OOB) updates through Windows Update are optional updates and have to be manually installed.

Below are the updates can only be downloaded through the Microsoft Update Catalog:

These are the updates for these Windows versions that are also available through Windows Update as an optional update:

  • Windows 11, version 21H1 (original release): KB5010795
  • Windows Server 2022: KB5010796
  • Windows 10, version 21H2: KB5010793
  • Windows 10, version 21H1: KB5010793
  • Windows 10, version 20H2, Windows Server, version 20H2: KB5010793
  • Windows 10, version 20H1, Windows Server, version 20H1: KB5010793
  • Windows 10, version 1909, Windows Server, version 1909: KB5010792
  • Windows 10, version 1607, Windows Server 2016: KB5010790
  • Windows 10, version 1507: KB5010789
  • Windows 7 SP1: KB5010798
  • Windows Server 2008 SP2: KB5010799

Tags: Win Server, Windows out-of-band emergency fixes

Nov 26 2021

NordVPN subscription

Category: VPNDISC @ 12:04 pm

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Jun 17 2021

VPNs and Trust

Category: VPNDISC @ 10:13 am

Most interesting to me is the home countries of these companies. Express VPN is incorporated in the British Virgin Islands. NordVPN is incorporated in Panama. There are VPNs from the Seychelles, Malaysia, and Bulgaria. There are VPNs from more Western and democratic countries like the US, Switzerland, Canada, and Sweden. Presumably all of those companies follow the laws of their home country.

And it matters. I’ve been thinking about this since Trojan Shield was made public. This is the joint US/Australia-run encrypted messaging service that lured criminals to use it, and then spied on everything they did. Or, at least, Australian law enforcement spied on everyone. The FBI wasn’t able to because the US has better privacy laws.

We don’t talk about it a lot, but VPNs are entirely based on trust. As a consumer, you have no idea which company will best protect your privacy. You don’t know the data protection laws of the Seychelles or Panama. You don’t know which countries can put extra-legal pressure on companies operating within their jurisdiction. You don’t know who actually owns and runs the VPNs. You don’t even know which foreign companies the NSA has targeted for mass surveillance. All you can do is make your best guess, and hope you guessed well.

Teleworking: VPN and other recommendations | INCIBE-CERT

The same should be pertinent for any technology or piece of software or hardware produced in other countries where privacy and copywrite laws are lax , anything supporting technology from a piece of software or hardware.

Tags: VPNs and Trust

Jun 15 2021

VPN attacks up nearly 2000% as companies embrace a hybrid workplace

Category: VPNDISC @ 12:33 pm

“As companies return to a hybrid workplace, it’s crucial that they are aware of the evolving threat landscape,” said Craig Robinson, Program Director, Security Services at IDC. “The data highlighted in this threat report by Nuspire and Recorded Future shows that security leaders need to stay vigilant as threat actors see opportunity in the continued era of remote access.”

Increase in VPN attacks

In Q1 2021, there was a 1,916% increase in attacks against Fortinet’s SSL-VPN and a 1,527% increase in Pulse Connect Secure VPN. These vulnerabilities allow a threat actor to gain access to a network. Once they are in, they can exfiltrate information and deploy ransomware.

“2020 was the era of remote work and as the workforce adjusted, information technology professionals scrambled to support this level of remote activity by enabling a wide variety of remote connectivity methods,” said J.R. Cunningham, CSO at Nuspire. “This added multiple new attack vectors that enabled threat actors to prey on organizations, which is what we started to see in Q1 and are continuing to see today.”

Because of the significant increase in VPN and RDP vulnerabilities, the report discovers malware, botnet and exploitation activity are down compared to Q4, but threat actors are still on the prowl.

Additional findings

Network Security, Firewalls, and VPNs with Cloud Labs

Tags: VPN attacks

Jan 25 2021

VisualDoor: SonicWall SSL-VPN Exploit

Category: Information Security,VPNDISC @ 12:28 am

TL;DR: SonicWall “Virtual Office” SSL-VPN Products ship an ancient version of Bash vulnerable to ShellShock, and are therefore vulnerable to unauthenticated remote code execution (as a “nobody” user) via the /cgi-bin/ URL.

The exploit is incredibly trivial. We simply spaff a shellshock payload containing a bash /dev/tcp backconnect at it, and we get a shell. Now, the environment on these things is incredibly limited – its stripped down Linux. But we have bash, openssl, and FTP. So you could always download your own toolkit for further exploitation.

Anyway, here is the public exploit. It is incredibly trivial and recycles the telnetlib handler for reverse shells from exploits released by Stephen Seeley.

Source: VisualDoor: SonicWall SSL-VPN Exploit

Nov 24 2020

Black Friday deal:

Category: VPNDISC @ 10:37 pm

Get 68% off NordVPN + 3 months FREE

NordVPN’s Black Friday promotion is now live with 68% off a 2-year VPN subscription and an additional three months for free. This offer gives you a total of 27 months of VPN access for a monthly cost of $3.30!

NordVPN’s Black Friday promotion is now live with 68% off a 2-year VPN subscription and an additional three months for free. This offer gives you a total of 27 months of VPN access for a monthly cost of $3.30!

If you wish to stay anonymous on the Internet while browsing the web, streams movies or listen to music, then this NordVPN deal may be something that will interest you.

As part of this deal, you get a 27-month subscription to the NordVPN VPN service, which allows you to browse the Internet, send email, download files, or perform network requests anonymously.


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Aug 05 2020

Hacker leaks passwords for 900+ Pulse Secure VPN enterprise servers

Category: Security Breach,VPNDISC @ 4:48 pm

ZDNet reported in exclusive that a list of passwords for 900+ enterprise VPN servers has been shared on a Russian-speaking hacker forum.

Source: Hacker leaks passwords for 900+ Pulse Secure VPN enterprise servers

Jul 18 2020

Seven ‘no log’ VPN providers accused of leaking – yup, you guessed it – 1.2TB of user logs onto the internet

Category: Log Management,VPNDISC @ 2:34 pm

Maybe it was the old Lionel Hutz play: ‘No-logging VPN? I meant, no! Logging VPN!’

Source: Seven ‘no log’ VPN providers accused of leaking – yup, you guessed it – 1.2TB of user logs onto the internet


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Jul 06 2020

NSA releases guidance on securing IPsec Virtual Private Networks

Category: VPNDISC @ 11:29 am

The US National Security Agency (NSA) has published guidance on how to properly secure IP Security (IPsec) Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) against potential attacks.

Source: NSA releases guidance on securing IPsec Virtual Private Networks

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Mar 01 2019

How to set up a VPN

Category: VPNDISC @ 4:02 pm

Make sure you can surf safely

In a nutshell, a VPN establishes a secure, encrypted connection between your device and a private server, hiding your traffic from being seen by others. Of course, the VPN itself can still see your traffic, which is why you should choose a VPN from a company you trust. (A good rule of thumb is to avoid free VPNs, because if they’re not charging you a fee, they may be monetizing in some less desirable way.) In addition, law enforcement can get its hands on your information through the VPN company. However, for the most part, a VPN offers you a way to hide your online activity from others.

Source: How to set up a VPN


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    Aug 24 2018

    NordVPN apps for iOS and macOS

    Category: VPNDISC @ 4:31 pm

    Redesigned NordVPN apps for iOS and macOS are available now!

    NordVPN team has been on a mission “Make the app UX go WOW” for a while. As they want users to have smooth and hassle-free NordVPN experience, rethinking our app navigation from the ground up felt like the right thing to do. Tweak after tweak, and today NordVPN’re more than excited to introduce the redesigned NordVPN apps for iOS and macOS! This a major design update, so let’s take a closer look.

    NordVPN app for iOS goes 4.0. What’s inside?

    Once you open the updated app, the view and navigation you will see is likely to remind you of a deck of cards. We organized our app this way to make it more thumb-friendly and clear for finding what you’re looking for.

    Swipe up to browse servers

    What can you do with a simple swipe-up? Great things, great things… From now on, by swiping up in the main map screen you’ll get one-tap access to:

    • Servers by country
    • Specialty servers
    • Search
    • Your favorites’ list


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    Tags: vpn